Statistics application-Concrete Normal Distribution Curve

Posted Posted in Project Management, Quality management system

Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. The purpose is to get meaning full information

Statistics applications

Introduction- This topic shall provide brief details for understanding of the statistical terms that are used in engineering application with a reference to concrete test results and their analysis for acceptance of results. The application of statistics shall be discussed in next blog. Terms described in this blog are:




Normal Distribution

Standard Deviation

Z score

Z score calculation

Standard deviation calculation


Statistics in EngineeringThe Standard Deviation (σ)

What is happening in any field can be observed. What is observed can be recorded. Whatever can be recorded is called collection of facts or the DATA

(such as in the form of   numbers, words, measurements, observations or descriptions)

The data is analyzed to get meaningful information.

 Data Type


Survey of whole population is called Census

Survey of a group od Population is called Sample


Data Types

Analog data –     A sound note changing uniformly and is continuous such without jerks

Digital data A sound note changing uniformly and is continuous such with jerks

Binary data – Used in computers and phones

A Binary Number is made up of only 0s and 1s.

100110 is a binary data- uses only two digits

Bit- Measure of one digit of binary data. The number above has 6 digits

Byte, Megabytes, Gigabytes, Terabytes – are the units of binary data measurement.

 Data is processed, analysed to get information. The information is used in ‘Monitoring & Control’ processes, which is an important group of ‘Project Management Processes’. The data can be represented diagrammatically as

Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Line Graphs, Scatter diagram, Histograms, Frequency Distribution etcetera

 Probability- Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with occurrence of a random event. For example,

When a coin is tossed in the air, the possible outcomes are Head and Tail. Hence probability of either head or tail is1/2.


When a dice having six faces numbering 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, is thrown there I probability that any number from 1 to 6 can come on top. Hence probability of any number coming on top is 1/6


Mean, Median and Mode are the measures of central value of a data set.


The mean of data set 14,18,12,17,12,13,11,10, 9, 8= sum of all numbers/number of data

(14+18+12+17+12+13+11+10+9+8) / 10 = 12.4 is the mean


Mode is the value that occurs most time

 Median of data 6,8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12, 14, 14, 17, 18

Arrange the data in a sequence. The central figure 12 is the median value. If centre dataset has even numbers, then find the average of two central values to get the Median value.

 If an event is random, it means that it does not seem to follow a definite plan or pattern or outcome.

Data observed can be found to have distribution towards left or towards right or towards centre or skewed.

The date which is centrally distributed is called normal distribution. Many things closely follow a Normal Distribution which includes outputs of engineering, studies, and research.

As an example, the crushing strength of same type of concrete cubes, is recorded as data  for  strength of concrete analysis, say 30 cubes (N=30).

Let the strength of concrete grade for which cubes are tested be 30 MPa.

The test strength of 30MPa concrete may not be 30 all the time, but it shall vary. This variation say is from 25 MPa to 35 MPa.

The test strength of each of 30 samples is recorded. Then the data is tabulated for strength and frequency. The strengths shall have frequency. (If 28 MPa test strength is observed 5 times in th 28 MPa is 5)

The strengths of the concrete when plotted against the frequency shall show a normal distribution. It shows that the strength of cubes has a mean value, and some of test results are close tohirty test operations, it means the frequency of strengt mean value on left and right side.

 We say the data is “normally distributed”. The shape of the curve is as shown below: (source Wikipedia)

X-axis   Strength (MPa)

y-axis   Frequency

 The main features of the ND curve are:

Abscissa, x-axis, represents the compressive strength, y-axis, represents the frequency of occurrence.

Total area of curve is equal to unity

Mean is a point on the x-axis having maximum frequency and dividing the area into two exact halves. The curve is symmetrical about mean.


Dark blue is less than one standard deviation from the mean. For the normal distribution, this includes 68.27 percent of the numbers.

Medium blue and Dark blue is two standard deviations from the mean include 95.45 percent.

 Light blue, Medium blue, and Dark blue is 3 standard deviation and include 99.73 %. The other area accounts for 4 σ,5 σ and 6 σ.

The Normal Distribution has:

  • mean = median = mode

  •  Data distribution is symmetry about the canter

  • 50% of values less than the mean and 50% greater than the mean


The normal distribution is mathematically defined completely by two statistical parameters: 

Population mean- μ and

Standard deviation- σ.


A mathematical characteristic of the normal distribution is that

(A)- 68.27% of the data lies within 1 standard deviation from the mean

(B)- 95.45% of the data is within 2 standard deviations.

(C)- 99.70% of the data is within 3 standard deviations

Standard deviation is a number used to tell how measurements for a group are spread out from the average (mean) value.

A low standard deviation means that most of the numbers are close to the average.

A high standard deviation means that the numbers are more spread out and therefore the results are not consistent, and the design need to be reviewed’

A ‘Standard Normal Distribution’ is a normal distribution with mean (μ )  and standard deviation (σ) 1,2, 3…..

  • Areas under this curve can be found using a ‘standard normal table’

  • The 68% of the observations fall between -1 σ and 1 σ

  • The 95% fall between -2 σ and 2 σ

  • The 99.7% fall between -3 σ and 3 σ.

 Z Score

 A z-score or standard score, gives an idea of how far from the mean, a data point is. Standard Normal Curve (SNC) has the raw data values on x -axis plotted with frequency on y- axis.  The x-axis has a mean value.  If it is required to find any raw data value distance from mean, in terms of σ, it can be calculated and is called Z Score. Hence it is a measure of how many standard deviations below or above the mean (μ) a raw score is.

A z-score can be placed on an NDC.

Z-scores range from -3 σ standard deviations up to +3 σ standard deviations

The z-score formula is:

z- is the “z-score”

x- is the value to be explored

μ- is the mean

σ- is the standard deviation

Z score calculation

Let us find the z- score for 26 MPa from the example above.


μ = 30


z-score= (x – μ)/σ= (26-30)/4=-1

The z-score is μ-1

This means that cube strength below μ-1 have values < 26 MPa and 99.7/2+34=83.85% test results have value > 26 MPa


Formula for SD

When your data is the whole population the formula is:

(The “Population Standard Deviation”)

When your data is a sample the formula is:

(The “Sample Standard Deviation”)

The important difference is “N-1” instead of “N”

x̅ =mean

x= data value

N=Number of data

Statistics provide necessary help for coming out to a criterion which may be fruitful for use and develop acceptance criteria of concrete test results.

The terms like average, mean, standard deviation, variance, normal distributions of statistics are used to explore these random variables for an outcome.

The outcome test samples (say 30) is tabulated for the strength and its frequency, and this data becomes the data for normal distribution curve – x axis as strength and y axis as frequency.


The analysis of strength test results presented as above  assumes that the test results under consideration are normally distributed


Consider a concrete batch form which concrete is taken to cast say three or four samples. (Each sample having three specimen)

Getting the strength of specimen from heterogeneous concrete is also an event and it is random as this and   other specimens of the same sample provide different results. The outcome is not predictive, therefore the average strength of three specimens is used as the strength of a sample for consideration

General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics. . SK Saxena     TechConsults

Happy New Year 2020 -SK Saxena

Posted Posted in Project Management

Happy New Year


Best Wishes for A Happy and Prosperous New Year 2020

Ask not what yor country can do for yoy. Ask what you can do for your country  —–Resolve to make India GREAT.                                                                                                                                                                                                          Click     TechConsults

Digital Life Certifcate India

Posted Posted in Project Management


Have DLC without tears by following the steps below:

Search for ‘COMMON SERVICE CENTER Locater’ (CSC) on internet

Search by your location or by PIN Code



Locate Common Service Center (CSC)

(Are available for all states and UT)

Contact CSC by their contact number if they provide DLC

You must be at CSC for biometric identification, with following documents:


PPO Number

Bank account number

IFC code

State- these are available in drop down menu in software


Treasury district    -these are available in drop down menu in software

The certificate generated is reflected in bank and treasury records and they are responsible for acknowledging it.

You need not go to bank or Treasury




Something General on Quality

Posted Posted in Project Management

Something General on Quality

Get complete control over your project execution by eploying the rquired professionals and training and retraining of staff at regular interver, developing their Emotional Intelligence
Sk 30 Q8 November 3, 2019

SK Saxena PMP

SummeryQuality must be inbuilt in all processes of project management, including the mission and objective. Once the project requirement is finalized, the quality aspects must become part of all processes, from project initiation to project closing and after wards in production marketing and sales operations.

Viewer ask me and desire to say something more on quality. Quality is an important subject.  I have seen so many executers discussing and describing their business operations related to ISO certified. It is so that they want to stress on their efforts on quality. They may be ISO (

International Organization for Standardization) certified but the important thing is to know if they follow the ISO premise of ‘decide and do’.

ISO suggests that the organization must have the quality norms in place in the form of documents for their operations and then manage the actions for the compliance of decided standards.

(This shall be a most comfortable way to implement and manage quality operations of the organization.)

Executers stress that they are ISO certified company, but they must achieve this certification at frequent duration, may be yearly to remain in maintaining their quality certifications.

I have also seen the marketing people giving the specifications of their ‘project output’ convincing enough to sell the products, but actually they are found of variant standards and not conforming to required specifications.

Such products may be visually brilliant but functionally not to the requirement. Their marketing skills may affect people but not for long time.

People with good qualifications such as MBA are trusted upon in marketing only if their marketing trustworthiness is acceptable to the public. And they should do so for long term gains for their organization.

This is called quality in marketing operation.


For long term gains, and steady outputs, the management giants must apply the principles of desire, direction, dedication and discipline in their operations for product development and its output operations.

Quality of outputs, if not managed effectively will create and added burden called the ‘cost of quality’ – giving further financial burden to the organization.

Such losses are created when targets are set to follow the schedule backlogs at the cost of quality.

If actions are taken to fill the progress gaps without considering the quality aspects these affects the quality aspects in several ways:

It affects the quality of works taken up hurriedly.

It affects the on-schedule work quality.

And create a lack of desire to follow quality management system, which affects the project operations in quality aspects.

It has been noticed in output-oriented organizations, that there is a state of art organizational setup for doing the things first time right. It is good. But do the things done first time right? Ok, if it is so. But if not, what may be the cause of not doing the things first time right.

It may because of lack of desire, direction, dedication and discipline in actions at some level of organization.


The instructions/ directions regarding quality concerns given from above senior level must be followed by all below level staff strictly and to right translation. Work assignment against these departmental instructions must be given to the active staff so that the staff is more coordinated and motivated. And that monitoring and controlling is done to the benefit of long-term organizational goals by active involvement of top management.

The execution of work must be taken up as per approved plan. No changes be made without approval and all manpower, material management must follow the inbuilt quality requirements. Execution schedule should not avoid quality aspects even for short term gain. The quality management is the responsibility of top management, if the organization want to maintain itself as long term entity.


The follow up of 7 quality control tools given below adds to quality enhancement in organization. ( shall be discussed in coming blogs)

Some organizations have separate quality control units The executer is always responsible to desired output. It is noticed in some organizations that the executer leaves all the quality concerns to the quality unit, and management also looks with the same eye. Such quality control units are for the guidance for the executing units and management should know the facts. It is the executing unit who must be responsible and the whole organization should support this view.  The quality is concern of Total Quality People (people with character, integrity, good values, and a positive attitude in organization)


Quality must be inbuilt in all processes of project management, including the mission and objective. Once the project requirement is finalized, the quality aspects must become part of all processes, from project initiation to project closing and after wards in production marketing and sales operations.

As a whole quality must be inbuilt in all actions – and ignoring it will provide unacceptable and unsatisfactory results.


Attitude and training play an important part in project development.

The staff (total quality people) must be trained and retrained for quality operations. Staff should visit to some quality organization or similar organization to well understand the quality operations. (Various aspects of quality management must be understood by the organization staff at all levels as necessary for them) This way they get aware of quality concerns.

It is most important in present day completion to have the project staff posted with professional qualification. Certified professionals such as PMP from PMI can understand the project operation in a better way. (


The attitudinal problem faced during quality management (A person knows the work well but does not do) must be tackled by behavior analysis, training and making the staff more emotionally intelligent.


Please refer to following links from TechConsult on Emotional Intelligence.


As regards project management (for goods and services) all knowledge areas and processes of compliance must have in built quality contents. (That is in investigation, planning, execution, monitoring / controlling and closing project phases)


The ISO premise helps in

deciding the quality management operations and then manage the compliance of decided actions.

Quality has now become more managerial. (refer highlighted links on quality blogs from TechConsults)

As such if the quality concerns of the organization are left to quality control unit only, the quality management is not likely to give desired output. Quality management starts from top in organization, and if done, such organizations stands and strive for long. We should learn from such national and international organization. Visit them and follow their needed action, guidance philosophy, ethics and standards.

In summery the quality is concern of top management and what is decided for quality must be ensured for compliance.

General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topic

Design Concrete Mix Proportioning

Posted Posted in Project Management

Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete


Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete

Data for concrete mix proportioning


Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete

Maximum nominal size of aggregate is used in design mix concrete. It is different from maximum size of the aggregate.

Following sieves are used for aggregate sieve analysis


Coarse aggregates (mm)

Fine Aggregates (mm / µm)


















The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is required to pass is called the maximum size of aggregate. (for 20 mm maximum size aggregate-all the material passes through next higher40 mm sieve)


The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is almost passed (90%-100%) is called the nominal maximum size. (for 20 mm nominal maximum size aggregate-all the material (90%-100%) passes through 20 mm sieve)


There are four basic ingredients for concrete production requirement:


Cementing Material

Fine Aggregates – size less than 4.75 mm

Coarse Aggregates – Size greater than 4.75 mm



Other ingredients that are added for Strength, Workability and Durability of concrete are listed below for different type of concretes


Fly Ash- Added in some quantity with cement replacement

Ground Granulated Blast furnace slag – Added in some quantity with cement replacement

Silica fumes – pozzolanic material used for high performance Concrete

Rice Husk Ash

Metakaolin (Metakaolin is the anhydrous calcined form of the clay mineral kaolinite. Minerals that are rich in kaolinite are known as china clay or kaolin, traditionally used in the manufacture of porcelain. The particle size of metakaolin is smaller than cement particles, but not as fine as silica fume – Source Wikipedia)

Super Plasticizer



All these ingredients are used for production of different type of concrete such as

  Ultra-high-performance concrete

 Self-consolidating concretes

 Vacuum Concrete


 Pervious concrete

 Nailing Concrete

High Strength Concrete

And other form of concrete as per design requirements

The proportioning uses the concept of on Abram’s Law (also called Abram’s water-cement ratio law) and Lyse’s Rule

ABRAM’S  LAW – Source Wikipedia

The law states the strength of a concrete mix is inversely related to the mass ratio of water to cement. As the water content increases, the strength of concrete decreases.


S = A / Bw/c{\displaystyle S={\frac {A}{B^{w/c}}}}


S is the strength of concrete

A and B are constants

w/c is the water – cement ratio, which varies from 0.3 to 1.20



According to Lyse’s rule it is not possible to predict the slump as water content changes. The need for this assessment arises when appropriate corrections must be applied to the water content to obtain the same slump without effecting any change to Water /cement ratio. (Consistency of cement refers to amount of water as percentage of cement)


Based on the above data, the Mix proportioning is done in reference to IS 456 2000 (Fourth revision) as per IS 10262-2019 for:

        Ordinary and standard grades of concrete

        High strength grades of concrete

        Self-compacting concrete

        Mass concrete


 General-Blog posts from TecConsults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and  for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics

Nominal Concrete Mix Proportioning

Posted 2 CommentsPosted in Project Management, Quality management system

Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete


“Each material has its specific characteristics which we must understand if we want to use it. This is no less true of concrete



Strength of Concrete

Constituents of concrete

Types of concrete

Tests on concrete materials

Nominal Mix Concrete

Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete



The concrete mix design is tested for its strength in laboratory. The test specimens used for are cylinders in USA and cubes in India and UK for example and these are used in various countries as per decision taken in these countries.
The concrete mix design in this BLOG shall be discussed on its cube strength basis. (The cube size is kept as 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm).


Strength of Concrete

Concrete strength units
Previously, concrete was defined as M 200 or M300. M200 means the 200 kg/centimeter 2.

Now it is defined as M20 or M30. M30 means 20 Newton/mm2.

 N = 1/10 Kf (Kilogram force)

As such M 200 Kg/cm2 is same as M 20 N/mm2
Also, 1N/mm2 = I MPa (Mega Pascale)

The concrete strength unit is in MPa (Megapascal) and N/mm

For example, as 30 MPa (Megapascal) or 30 N/ mm2


Constituents of concrete

The concrete Is composed of following ingredients (in specific limits as per codes and guidelines).
 Sand-Natural or Crushed or mix of natural and crushed

Aggregates- Natural or Crushed or mix of natural and crushed

Cementing Materials (Different type of cementing materials are – various types of cements, epoxy resins etcetera required for achieving the desired strength).



The above ingredients are manufacture or collected to the required specifications for concrete production, to maintain the designed concrete strength and workability (Workability means the ease with which concrete can be moved and placed in forms without segregation )

The strength of concrete, produced from these ingredients further depends on production and placement of concrete, along with variations in the properties of constituents of concrete.


Types of Concretes

Regular concrete (ordinary concrete up to M 60

High-strength concrete- Above M 60

Stamp ed concrete-Concrete laid over the main concrete such as architectural concrete

 High-performance concrete (have following desirable features)

Ease of placement

Compaction without segregation

Early age strengt 

Long-term mechanical properties



Heat of hydration


Volume stability

Long life in severe environments

Ultra-high-performance concrete

Self-consolidating concretes

Vacuum Concrete



Pervious concrete

 Nailing Concrete


Tests on concrete materials

The various tests suggested for constituents of concrete are as follows: (These may be modified as per work specifications)


The test results have defined limits of acceptance, adopted on good practices (standards, codes, etcetera)
Variations in quantities of concrete as required are done.

 In order to design a mix of desired strength the concrete, the concrete constituents are specifically proportioned on the basis of good experience, practices are available in the form standard and codes.


The results obtained based on mix proportioning are put to further trials and finally the desired mix proportion is used to produce concrete. It is a good practice to carry on mix proportioning at intervals to accommodate any variations in the qualities of constituents of concrete.


Finally, workability durability and strength are the factors that govern mix proportioning.


Nominal Mix Concrete

IS 456 – Plain and Reinforced concrete code of practice, suggest to use Nominal Mix concrete up to M20 and Design Mix concrete above M20
Nominal mix concrete is not designed and it may use excess quantity of cement and must be use for small quantiles of works  as per direction and approval of Engineer in Charge.
However, if the quality of M20 grade concrete is in mass, it is advisable to use the design mix concrete.


Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete

(for small and scattered job and as per approval of engineer in Charge)

Nominal mix design may be adopted for other grades of concrete as well as discussed above…


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“We should attempt to bring nature, houses, and human beings together in a higher unity.” Ludwig

Format for Project Quality Management Document (QMS)

Posted Posted in Project Management

Format for Project Quality Management Document (QMS)

SK Saxena   PMP

Q4       SK 26  Dt  May 03, 2019


“Bad things do happen; how I respond to them defines my character and the quality of my life. I can choose to sit in perpetual sadness, immobilized by the gravity of my loss, or I can choose to rise from the pain and treasure the most precious gift I have – life itself.”           Walter Anderson 


The QMS is developed for Construction Projects. It is then issued for implementation in ongoing works / rehabilitation projects and is need based. However, it is open for improvements during construction operations. It shall provide an easy access to QA QC team (existing staff and newcomers) in implementing the QA QC processes and procedures. It also covers the scope of work and objectives to be achieved, necessary guidance, and roles and responsibilities for QA QC team members for achieving the desired objective. The information from the outputs of system implementation, observations and suggestions can be used for reporting, monitoring, analysis, review and further improvements.


Project QMS revolves around the Project Quality Management such as

Plan Quality Management

Manage Quality

Control Quality

Organization’s Quality Policy

(The general goals of the QC program in conformation to Organization’s policy which includes Project Environment Management)

(Please refer to our following blogs on Quality Requirements / Management)


Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)


Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects


Health Management at Construction Projects

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects


Suggestive Contents

Project Type

Construction of a major project (New Projects and Rehabilitation Projects) that includes dam, powerhouse, spillway, tunnels, infrastructure, commercial and large real state buildings and appurtenant facilities.


 Project Definition: (It may include following points)

  • Location

  • Purpose of the Proposed Construction.

  • Background Information on the Construction Contracts

  • The brief details of Owner, Designer, Construction Agency / Supervision Agency

  • Supervision and Control Responsibility

  • Organization for QC staff / Supervision staff, Personnel and Key Personnel with Experience, Authority, Responsibility

  • And other Project Related Requirements


Commitment to the definition, implementation and control of improvement programs, may be achieved

By suitable education, training and awareness all the Constructor’s personnel will act professionally, responsibly and will have an awareness and commitment to quality.

By the development and adoption of innovative methods and technologies, developing emotional intelligence as well as by the motivation and satisfaction of the workforce, the Sponsor and Constructor will increase the effectiveness of its own processes to the satisfaction of Stakeholders.

Workforce commitment and participation in the continual improvement process through the exchange of experience, awareness, information on the results achieved.

Verification by management through internal audits, critical analyses on the results achieved and a periodic review of the principles recorded for the QMS.



QMS is based on processes, (every process is supported by inputs, outputs, and tools and techniques) and their implementation by TQM and TQP

QMS is a system that includes the continuous improvement cycle as part of management: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA).


The Quality Management system considers:

  • Determining the necessary processes for the quality management system and their application by the organization.

  • Determining the sequence and use of the identified processes.

  • Determining the criteria and methods required to make sure that both the operation and the control of these processes are effective.

  • The availability of resources required to support the operation and follow-up of these processes.

  • The process measurement documentation, analysis, review and feedback.


The quality system to be implemented on the Project works are based on the ISO 9001 :2008 standard recommendations. – Do what  is Decided.

Quality Management

According to the Quality policy for the Project Organization, Quality Assurance (QA) / Quality management / Quality Control will be executed by the Constructor, (including the sub-contractors) and administered by the Project QA/QC Department in reference to Project Quality Plan.


Quality management will be applied all knowledge area plans, their execution and monitoring and control.

(Knowledge Areas- Project Integration, Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Communication, Risk, Procurement, and Stakeholder plans)d


QMS Content Format -Tentative

—————————————————————--A Suggestive Format for Project Quality Management Document


 Starting from the Cover Page




Ref: ———- date


Status (Revision No. )




Project Organization ———–

Name of Project ———–


The Employer—-

The Constructor ————






QMS:  The   general goals of the QMS program Project definition:

  • Location

  • Purpose of the proposed construction.

  • Background information on the construction contracts

  • The Owner, Designer, Construction Agency

  • Supervision and control responsibility

Organization For QC staff / Supervision staff, personnel and key personnel with CV , authority, responsibility, 

Scope of work and oblectives.

Human Resources Management.

Construction management personnel / QA QC personnel.

Lines of communication and authority for rejection approval and stopping of work Duties and responsibilities of CS, QA/QC and CA team members.

 Inspection Plan /Inspection criteria and Field Practices (The criteria for inspection of contract work to assure meeting contract requirements)

Equipment and resources management Contractor operations

Coordination with contractor’s schedule

Training (A training program for field engineers and inspectors (Owner-Contractor-Supervision Agency)-In house- On site-out sourced)

      Study materials

      Classroom instruction

      On-the-job-training and supervision

      Proficiency testing and certification

      Knowledge of contract/TS

      Internal Audits


Laboratory Set Up Laboratories locations -their functions and equipment and calibration

     Main Laboratory

     Field Laboratory or

     Out sourced Testing Facilities

Project Quality Control Plan


Main Locations and Activities for implementation,

Laboratory supervision/duties and responsibilities

Mix designs-laboratory and field testing

List of tests and checks,

Checklists, Testing formats and procedures

Codes and references

Number and Specialties of QC Staff –based on construction methodology, locations and the construction schedule

Codes and references

Number and Specialties of QC Staff –based on construction methodology, locations and the construction schedule

Record keeping procedures

 Responsibility Chart

 Erosion Control and Environment Control  

 Environmental compliance plan

Erosion and sediment control plan

License requirements

Specialized plans, permits and approvals Frequency of inspections

Documentation and corrective actions

Important guidelines, references, Construction

Environmental deficiency report


Roles of Contractor, QA QC team and CS team,

BP inspection/ Concrete placement reports—Calibration, operation reports, trip card

Documentation and reporting mechanism,

QA QC activities

Daily Weekly and Monthly reports,

Non-Conformance Notices

Monitoring (SOB, CR and Site Meetings) Frequency of tests,

OK card Implementation procedure and documentation

Supplement material for PCR

Summery Information


Monitoring, Evaluation and Feedback

Appendix – may include

  • Organizational chart

  • Descriptions of duties and responsibilities of QC staff


  • List of contract documents

  • Materials testing schedule (in house and outsourcing)

  • Contractor’s schedule with resource utilization

  • Construction Inspection Checklist

  • Issue log, Change log

  • Other orders/ forms issued during construction stage


OK Cards Software’s—QMS, PM, MS project, Photos and Videos


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena

Project Quality and Management Processes

Posted Posted in Project Management

About the Topic

                  Quality is never an accident.

                  It is always the result of

  • High intention,

  • Sincere effort,

  • Intelligent direction and

  • Skill full execution.


SK Saxena PMP


Project Quality and Management Processes

Quality is productivity of employees, who, after having a proper knowledge of work (after receive the training, knowing tools and instruction), execute their jobs.


Lack of quality …….

  • Non sustainable workmanship,

  • Unsafe structures,

  • Delays,

  • Cost overruns,

  • Time overruns

  • Disputes

As per ISO 9000 the general principles for QMS revolves around following points:

  1. Customer focus

  2. Leadership

  3. Involving people

  4. Process approach

  5. Systems approach

  6. Continual improvement

  7. Factual decision making

  8. Mutually beneficial relationships

What is said about Quality (some additional quotes)?

  • Quality provides solutions to problems before they occur

  • Quality is flexibility, the willingness to change to meet demands,

  • Quality is efficiency in doing things quickly and correctly,

  • Quality is a process of ongoing improvements

  • Quality is meeting a schedule, being on time,

  • Quality is a set of coordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance

  • Quality———–Output fit for use


 Characteristics of quality


Quality is

  • Technical           – Strong and durable

  • Psychological           – Aesthetics

  • Time oriented            – Reliability and availability

  • Ethical                     – Courtesy honesty


Approach to Quality

Quality has been a matter of concern in product development and as such it has passed through various stages and approaches during its development, from traditional to scientific and management approach. The stages from statistical approach to TQM are as follows;


  • Statistical quality control

  • Process development                       – 1940-50

  • Japanese Quality Revolution -1960-70

(Raw material – design – production – marketing)

  • Zero defect movement USA         – 1970

  • Total Quality Management         – 1980-90


Project Quality Management Processes

Plan Quality Management: Assessment of project quality requirements, specifications standards for acceptable product delivery and the necessary documentation and records required for quality operations

Manage Quality: Implementation of Planned Quality

 managements processes for achieving desired Goals

Control Quality: Monitoring and control the

Implementation methodology.

 Inputs, Tools and technique and Outputs of Project Quality Management Processes (As per PMBOK 6th Edition)


Actions required for Project Quality Management

Find organization’s policy, procedures, and align them to need of the project.

Know about the project in depth and find out the processes required for its completion.

Know about all the processes, procedures specifications etcetera and tailor them as per project requirement. May use PMBOK guide and Project management standard in tailoring the project.

Ensure that quality plan incorporates the project scope and the work specifications.

The plan must be reviewed during the project execution process. Any changes required must be got approved and be made the part of quality plan.

Ensure that quality assurance measures and quality control metrics is objectively defined for use.

Quality plan should be focused on customer’s requirements.

Incorporate in quality plans the,

Quality Standards

Quality procedures

Sampling and testing methods

Documentation of raw data and test results.

Data analysis processes

Quality report generation

Add quality aspects in methodology of different works

Set standards for acceptance of test results

Verify the assumptions made in quality planning

Ensure that the required staff is posted in laboratories and fields

Quality team must be dedicated one and should no perform in influence

Staff must be aware of lessons learned  on quality matters from the other projects

Quality issue logs should be maintained and monitored for urgent resolution.

Manage quality within project constraints

Issuance of reports

Holding meetings and reviews

Quality communication at site, site meetings, and maintaining Site Order Books

Electronics access of communication to seniors

Approval of suppliers

Laboratory audits and quality audits

Development of laboratory system

Joint inspection of works for taking proactive measures

Staff training for laboratory staff and other staff engaged in construction.

Record keeping


Gold Plating

Gold plating in project management means adding additional features to the product as regards to its aesthetics, cost time etcetera, which are outside the scope of the project. Anything done beyond project scope will be risky as it may create an impression on the customer that the project may be having surplus money. Any such saving should be brought in the notice of sponsor/customer timely.

Project works are complex, and it is advised to do what is needed. Project scope should not be changed. Gold plating may have effect on project constraints

If project manager of team upgrades the specifications of the project without customer involvement, then it is violation of specifications and quality.


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena

Our other blogs which may be helpful for the current blog:


General – Workplace Enviroment


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2


Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence


Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

Project Management Framework Essentials 2


TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility



Quality at Construction Projects- The Start Up

Posted Posted in Project Management

Quality at Construction Projects- The Start Up


Q SK - 24 March 29, 2019 -

Manage All Your Daily Quality Tasks
Through A understanding of Quality

Quality (the degree of excellence) is necessary for every output (in the form of  goods, services and results) required to be produced for a purpose ( in every field associated with the development of mankind, the nation and the universe , in a sustained environment associated with land water, air and the management of social, political, cultural, economic etcetera parameters) . For the quality output, the system requires quality inputs and quality process / techniques (designed and developed by quality innovation by quality people – in thoughts, words and actions)

Quality is defined as the degree to which the project fulfils the requirements

As such for a quality output we require

Quality people

Quality inputs

Quality processes

(for any and all type of output)


Special terms / words associated with Quality output


Quality Management system (QMS)

Quality Management System (QMS) is a series of functions and activities (sub-processes, stages, phases, etc.) within an organization, that work together in order to achieve the goals of the organization.

 A good QMS will:

  • Set direction and meet user’s expectations

  • Improve process control

  • Reduce wastage

  • Lower costs

  • Increase market share

  • Facilitate training

  • Involve Staff, Management and Stakeholders

  • Raise morale

Steps involved in development of QMS are:


  • Design

  • Build

  • Control

  • Deployment

  • Measurement

  • Review

  • Improve

Quality is an investment in project construction, and if managed, it reduces cost of construction because, in the long term doing it the right things the first time, is less expensive (than setting it right later when it costs multiple times).

1. Quality Planning

A quality plan is a document that provides specific details of quality standards, good practices, resources, specifications, processes, inputs, tools and techniques for a desired output, along with details of quality metrics, control. corrective actions and monitoring and reporting mechanisms. This document may be revised if required for managing the quality aspects during the execution period.

2. Quality Assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of assuring the quality output of the product or services. It assures that the measures planned for execution process are put in practice during the execution period effectively and efficiently to get the desired and acceptable output.

 3. Total Quality People

Total Quality People /Persons are the people / persons with 


(personality, nature, disposition, temperament, temper, mentality, etcetera)

(honesty, uprightness, good character, righteousness, morality, nobility, high-mindedness, right-mindedness, noble-mindedness, truthfulness, trustworthiness etcetera)

 Good Values

(Dependability. Reliability, Loyalty. Commitment. Open-mindedness. Consistency. Honesty. Efficiency)

 Positive attitude

A positive attitude helps a person to look at the positive side of the things – a look for optimism, good things to happen, – and people with such attitudes are easy to handle and can handle others as well.

A person with a positive attitude learns from the mistakes and failures and takes risk. They are confident and takes challenges effectively.

Such people / persons

Increase productivity

Solve problem

Believe in team work

Create good work environment

Are loyal to organization

 Maintain good relationship


 Help each other

 Have pleasing personality


Total Quality Management focuses the organization’s goals on a well-planned QMS for meeting the needs of the customer. It is defined as successful implementation of Quality Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, so that the product is delivered to the requirement and satisfaction of customer.

5. Quality Control

QC is a system of maintaining standards in manufactured products by testing samples of the outputs against the specifications.  In practice data is collected on sample basis for the attributes of the product or services output, and the variations, if any are reported for improved quality assurances or corrections on the basis of defined and approved metrics.

Quality Control focuses on the process of producing the product or service with the intent of eliminating problems that might result in defects.

Quality Assurance makes sure you are doing the right things, the right way.

Various definitions of Quality

1. Fit for Purpose

If the product or service developed has no problem in its use, it can be said that the product is fit for use and is considered as quality product. The quality attributes may not be measurable

2. Conformance to Requirements

 When a project is started, its scope and requirements are determined, and specifications are set.

After the development of the product or service or result, it is checked for the fulfillment of requirements. If it is conforming to the requirements it is considered as quality output.

3. Quality Is Cost

Cost effective product is developed. The stress is on less costly output but with a product of acceptable standard.

4. Quality is Price

Product development is considered at low price of economic design, but the output is a quality product.

5.Quality is a Standard

The quality of the product is assessed based on Industry standards.

6. Quality is Value for Performance

The developed product is valued for its performance. The customer may not mind the cost of the product against its valuable performance.


Our quality thoughts help us to provide quality directions.

Our quality work output helps in development of society

Our quality actions improvise the outputs in any field of action services, works, production etcetera.


Quality has several definitions given by the quality GURus and eminent personalities.

Why- because it is important in every aspects of actions / outputs. It is everywhere: in our thoughts, words, actions and these encompasses the whole area where we talk about the quality.

There are various actions imbibed in Quality Management System (QMS) that are developed and have lot of directions that includes what to do, what to avoid, what processes and procedures to follow and ultimately all of them depends on the organization’s policy.

Today lot of action plans are available as what to do in managing quality. The ultimate thing require is to have positive thought process and positive efforts to convert the ideas in action.

Sincere actions are required by following the planning process, execution process, the control process.  the analysis of control data, the necessary changes to plan and re- execution of plans and so on.

 All this require dedicated teams, sincere actions, based on skill, knowledge and tool and techniques required for quality output.

 So, it is necessary that the thoughts, words, and deeds are sincere, before going for quality management.

 It is noticed that, quality planning, if done based on the quality policy is almost right.

Problem arises when the planned assurance measures and feedback after quality control operations are defective. This may be by not putting the right person at the right job and the effect of project constraint.

The project management must remain involved in managing the processes of project effectively. The Knowledge area and process groups have all the required processes. So, it is important that all the knowledge area planning when put to execution and monitoring should have sincere actions.

A person who believes only in progress output, or financial output may not have belief in quality output. And if such persons are supported by the top management, forget there shall be any quality output.

All the processes of the project must have quality handling to give quality output and this depends on how the processes are being managed. That is why quality is more a management issue.

Most of the fruitful results of the actions are based on quality planning, A good planning orients the execution towards the desired output

When things are planned, the direction of movement is known. And if not planned it is directionless situation and may achieve undesired output or any output.


Quality as defined in dictionary:

“The quality of product (services or goods) is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of customers”-Bergman Kiofsjo-1994


Quality GURUS

And their Contribution for Quality

W Edwards Deming

PDCA, Kaizen (continuous improvement)

Joseph Juran

Do it right first time

Philips Crosby

Cost of Quality (Prevention Costs, Appraisal Costs,Failure Costs)

Shigeo Shingo

Poka-Yoke, Mistake Proofing, SMED, Just in Time Production, and Jidoka.

K Ishikawa

-the quality does not mean the only the quality of product, but also, after sales service,the company itself and the human life

Taiichi Ohno

Seven Wastes


 “Quality is never an accident. It is always the result of intelligent effort.” – John Ruskin


 “Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”.


 “Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning.” – Bill Gates


 “If you can’t describe what you are doing as a process, you don’t know what you’re doing.” – W. Edwards Deming


Our other blogs which may be helpful for the current blog:


General – Workplace Enviroment


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2


Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence


Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

Project Management Framework Essentials 2


TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxen

Earned Value Management – EV AC PV Curves and Variences

Posted Posted in Project Management

Earned Value Management


PV AC EV Curves & Variances

PM SK 23 March 24, 2019

PV AC EV Curves

PV curve is the planned value curve.

Whenever the project is planned then the curve plotted between the cumulative planned expenditure of the project with respect to time line is called PV (Planned Value) Curve. It is to be ensured that the expenditure done on the project must follow this line values. However, depending upon the project execution period environment there may be variations of actual cost (AC) with respect to PV, but there should be monitoring for such variations, and necessary alignment in PV and AC should be maintained.

If at any time AC value is above or below the PV value, it tells us that the expenses are than the desired values and required controls are exercised accordingly.

In case of larger variations which are not controllable, the PV may be revised with a proper approval.

AC= Actual money spent up to a time.


PV=Planned value up to a time

It is clear now what is PV and AC.

There is another important term which is called Earned Value (EV)

Even after spending (AC) up to planned expenditure (PV), there is no guarantee that the value of work done is in conformity with the AC. (Suppose the value of work is 100 up to a point on time line and the expender done is 100, it does not ensure that the work is 100 percent complete.  We must ascertain what percentage of work is done and what is its value. The value of this work done is earned Value (EV))

Therefore, the value of actual work done is determined and it is called Earned Value (EV).

EV= Is the value of actual work done from the money s(AC)

The EV PV and AC data on the timeline can be analyzed to get meaningful information.

EV-PV=Schedule Variance (the relation between PV and EV)


Schedule Variance (SV) = Earned Value (EV) – Planned Value (PV)

If SV is positive, it means that the actual value of work done is more than the planned value and the progress is ahead of schedule.

If SV is negative, it means that the actual value of work done is less than the planned value and the progress is behind schedule.

Cost Variance (CV) = Earned Value (EV) – Actual Cost (AC)

If CV is positive, it means that the actual value of work done is more than the planned value

If CV is negative, it means that the actual value of work done is less than the planned value and the project is over budgeted


Example of Schedule Variance (SV) and Cost variance (CV

In a project with a budgeted cost of $ 100,000, for a period of 18 months, following data was noticed after a period of 10 months:

PV at 10 months= $ 70000

Money spent=$ 75000

Work complete = 40 percent

Find the project’s Schedule Variance and cost variances and the inference from this analysis


Given in the question:


Actual Cost (AC) = $ 75000

Planned Value (PV) = $ 70000

 Earned Value (EV) = $40000 (40 % of $100000)

 Schedule Variance =Earned Value – Planned Value

 = 40,000 – 70000

 = – 30,000

Inference: The SV is -30000 and the project is behind the schedule

Cost Variance = Earned Value – Actual Cost

 CV = EV – AC

 = 40,000 – 75000

= –35000

Inference: The Cost Variance is -35000, and the project is over budgeted



The PV AC and EV curves are shown below:

The above curves are based on the following data;



Monthly Expenses


Schedule Variance

Cost Varience

S N0.











































































































For Follow up Next:

Budget at Completion (BAC)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

 For follow up Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

To Complete performance Index (TCPI)

View Earned value Management   S Curve