September 15, The Engineers Day

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The Engineers Day

A tribute the greatest Indian Engineer Sir Mokshagundam Vishweshvaraya,

Engineering for Change’ is the theme of Engineers Day 2019.

The Engineering Community across India celebrates Engineers Day on 15 September every year as a tribute to the greatest Indian Engineer Bharat Ratna Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya.

Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, born on 15 September 1861, in Muddenahalli near Chikkaballapur.

Early life of Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya

Sir MV was born on September 15th, 1861 to

father Srinivasa Sastry and mother Venkatraman at Muddenahalli village in Kolar district of Karnataka. He lost his father at the age of 15 and moved with his mother to Bangalore where his maternal uncle H Ramaiah lived.

He got admitted to the Wesleyan Mission High School in 1875; after completing his schooling, he completed B.A with distinction from Central College of Bangalore and Civil Engineering from College of Engineering, Pune in 1881 and 1883 respectively. He secured first rank in the LCE and FCE examinations (equivalent to BE Examination of the current days).

Professional Life

He started his professional life as an Assistant Engineer with Public Works Department (PWD) at Mumbai (earlier Bombay) in 1884 and wconstruction and laying out city developments plans in several important towns.

He worked with complete dedication and perseverance and got promoted as Chief Engineer in Mysore State in 1909. He also worked as Chairman of Bhadravati Iron Works and later became the member of Back Bay Enquiry Committee, London. He was also the member of the governing council of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Dewan of Mysore State for 6 years, President of Education and Industrial Development Committees in Mysore State and the Member of the Governing Council of TATA Iron and Steel Company (TISCO).as later requested to join the Indian Irrigation Commission. As a Public Works Department engineer, he accomplished several projects related to maintenance of public buildings, road 

After topping the Poona College of Engineering he was directly recruited by Government of Bombay and appointed as Assistant Engineer in Public Works Department

He created automatic sluice gates which were later reused for Tigra Dam (in Madhya Pradesh) and KRS Dam (in Karnataka) as well. For this patent design, he was supposed to get a recurring income in the form of royalty, but he refused it so that the government could use this money for more developmental projects.

Between 1895 and 1905, he worked in different parts of India:

  • In Hyderabad, he improved the drainage system.

  • In Bombay, he introduced a block system of irrigation and water weir flood gates.

  • In Bihar and Orissa, he was a part of the building railway bridges project and water supply schemes.

  • In Mysore, he supervised the construction of KRS dam, the then Asia’s biggest damHe was offered Dewan ship (Prime Minister position) of Mysore in 1908 and given full responsibility for all the development projects. 

  • Under his Dewan ship, Mysore saw major transformation in the realms of Agriculture, Irrigation, Industrialization, Education, Banking and Commerce.He was conferred with India’s highest civilian award, Bharat Ratna in 1955 for his contribution towards engineering.

Achievements of Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya

Though there are several achievements in the life of Sir MV and each cannot be described but out of the most recognizable ones is the Block System of Irrigation; a scheme prepared by him at the illustration of the then president of the Indian Irrigation Commission. He wanted to make irrigation mechanism more popular and profitable in the Bombay Presidency and to yield a practical return on the expenditure that the Government had incurred on them at that time. During his stay in the Bombay Presidency, he got closer to some of the gems like Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mahadeo Govind Ranade and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Another notable task accomplished by Sir MV was the system of automatic weir water floodgates first installed in the year 1903 at Khadakvasla reservoir near Pune, designed and patented by him. These gates were first used to control the floods of the Mootha Canal flowing through Pune. Similar gates were later used in the Krishnasagar dam in Mysore, Tigra Dam in Gwalior and other large storage dams.

The works of Sir MV were highly successful and notable followed by the invitation from the Nizam’s Government to take up the responsibility and charge of the Chief Engineer’s position at Hyderabad in 1909. There he designed a flood protection system for protecting the city of Hyderabad from floods and consequently earned a celebratory status.———- by Newspaper ‘The Hindu’.


Joinedservice as Assistant Engineer in Bombay, 1885; served in Nasik, Khandesh and Pune.

Services lent to Municipality of Sukkur in Sind, 1894: designed and carried out water works of Municipality

Executive Engineer, Surat, 1896;

Assistant Superintending Engineer, Pune, 1897–99; visited China and Japan, 1898

Executive Engineer for Irrigation, Pune, 1899

Sanitary Engineer, Bombay, member, Sanitary Board, 1901; gave evidence before Indian Irrigation Commission

Designed and constructed automatic gates patented by him at Lake Fife Storage Reservoir; introduced new system of irrigation known as the “Block System”, 1903

Superintending Engineer, 1907; visited Egypt, Canada, United States, Russia, 1908

Services lent as Consulting Engineer to Hyderabad/Nizam State, to supervise and carry out engineering works in connection with Musi river; Hyderabad floods of year 1909

Retired from British Service, 1909

Chief Engineer and Secretary to the Government of Mysore, 1909

Dewan of Mysore, PWD and Railway, 1913

Board of Directors of Tata Steel, 1927–1955 

It is a tribute to this great man. The words can not  define his endeavor for the welfare of society in reference to the engineering sciences.–His bust at JIT

Hope that his life excerpts will provide the great direction to the upcoming engineering force——-TechConsults

TechConsults is thankful to the creator of the repository of information available. The same is shared here for the generation to come.      SK 29 dated September 15, 2019

Design Concrete Mix Proportioning

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Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete


Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete

Data for concrete mix proportioning


Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete

Maximum nominal size of aggregate is used in design mix concrete. It is different from maximum size of the aggregate.

Following sieves are used for aggregate sieve analysis


Coarse aggregates (mm)

Fine Aggregates (mm / µm)


















The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is required to pass is called the maximum size of aggregate. (for 20 mm maximum size aggregate-all the material passes through next higher40 mm sieve)


The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is almost passed (90%-100%) is called the nominal maximum size. (for 20 mm nominal maximum size aggregate-all the material (90%-100%) passes through 20 mm sieve)


There are four basic ingredients for concrete production requirement:


Cementing Material

Fine Aggregates – size less than 4.75 mm

Coarse Aggregates – Size greater than 4.75 mm



Other ingredients that are added for Strength, Workability and Durability of concrete are listed below for different type of concretes


Fly Ash- Added in some quantity with cement replacement

Ground Granulated Blast furnace slag – Added in some quantity with cement replacement

Silica fumes – pozzolanic material used for high performance Concrete

Rice Husk Ash

Metakaolin (Metakaolin is the anhydrous calcined form of the clay mineral kaolinite. Minerals that are rich in kaolinite are known as china clay or kaolin, traditionally used in the manufacture of porcelain. The particle size of metakaolin is smaller than cement particles, but not as fine as silica fume – Source Wikipedia)

Super Plasticizer



All these ingredients are used for production of different type of concrete such as

  Ultra-high-performance concrete

 Self-consolidating concretes

 Vacuum Concrete


 Pervious concrete

 Nailing Concrete

High Strength Concrete

And other form of concrete as per design requirements

The proportioning uses the concept of on Abram’s Law (also called Abram’s water-cement ratio law) and Lyse’s Rule

ABRAM’S  LAW – Source Wikipedia

The law states the strength of a concrete mix is inversely related to the mass ratio of water to cement. As the water content increases, the strength of concrete decreases.


S = A / Bw/c{\displaystyle S={\frac {A}{B^{w/c}}}}


S is the strength of concrete

A and B are constants

w/c is the water – cement ratio, which varies from 0.3 to 1.20



According to Lyse’s rule it is not possible to predict the slump as water content changes. The need for this assessment arises when appropriate corrections must be applied to the water content to obtain the same slump without effecting any change to Water /cement ratio. (Consistency of cement refers to amount of water as percentage of cement)


Based on the above data, the Mix proportioning is done in reference to IS 456 2000 (Fourth revision) as per IS 10262-2019 for:

        Ordinary and standard grades of concrete

        High strength grades of concrete

        Self-compacting concrete

        Mass concrete


 General-Blog posts from TecConsults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and  for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics

Nominal Concrete Mix Proportioning

Posted 2 CommentsPosted in Project Management, Quality management system

Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete


“Each material has its specific characteristics which we must understand if we want to use it. This is no less true of concrete



Strength of Concrete

Constituents of concrete

Types of concrete

Tests on concrete materials

Nominal Mix Concrete

Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete



The concrete mix design is tested for its strength in laboratory. The test specimens used for are cylinders in USA and cubes in India and UK for example and these are used in various countries as per decision taken in these countries.
The concrete mix design in this BLOG shall be discussed on its cube strength basis. (The cube size is kept as 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm).


Strength of Concrete

Concrete strength units
Previously, concrete was defined as M 200 or M300. M200 means the 200 kg/centimeter 2.

Now it is defined as M20 or M30. M30 means 20 Newton/mm2.

 N = 1/10 Kf (Kilogram force)

As such M 200 Kg/cm2 is same as M 20 N/mm2
Also, 1N/mm2 = I MPa (Mega Pascale)

The concrete strength unit is in MPa (Megapascal) and N/mm

For example, as 30 MPa (Megapascal) or 30 N/ mm2


Constituents of concrete

The concrete Is composed of following ingredients (in specific limits as per codes and guidelines).
 Sand-Natural or Crushed or mix of natural and crushed

Aggregates- Natural or Crushed or mix of natural and crushed

Cementing Materials (Different type of cementing materials are – various types of cements, epoxy resins etcetera required for achieving the desired strength).



The above ingredients are manufacture or collected to the required specifications for concrete production, to maintain the designed concrete strength and workability (Workability means the ease with which concrete can be moved and placed in forms without segregation )

The strength of concrete, produced from these ingredients further depends on production and placement of concrete, along with variations in the properties of constituents of concrete.


Types of Concretes

Regular concrete (ordinary concrete up to M 60

High-strength concrete- Above M 60

Stamp ed concrete-Concrete laid over the main concrete such as architectural concrete

 High-performance concrete (have following desirable features)

Ease of placement

Compaction without segregation

Early age strengt 

Long-term mechanical properties



Heat of hydration


Volume stability

Long life in severe environments

Ultra-high-performance concrete

Self-consolidating concretes

Vacuum Concrete



Pervious concrete

 Nailing Concrete


Tests on concrete materials

The various tests suggested for constituents of concrete are as follows: (These may be modified as per work specifications)


The test results have defined limits of acceptance, adopted on good practices (standards, codes, etcetera)
Variations in quantities of concrete as required are done.

 In order to design a mix of desired strength the concrete, the concrete constituents are specifically proportioned on the basis of good experience, practices are available in the form standard and codes.


The results obtained based on mix proportioning are put to further trials and finally the desired mix proportion is used to produce concrete. It is a good practice to carry on mix proportioning at intervals to accommodate any variations in the qualities of constituents of concrete.


Finally, workability durability and strength are the factors that govern mix proportioning.


Nominal Mix Concrete

IS 456 – Plain and Reinforced concrete code of practice, suggest to use Nominal Mix concrete up to M20 and Design Mix concrete above M20
Nominal mix concrete is not designed and it may use excess quantity of cement and must be use for small quantiles of works  as per direction and approval of Engineer in Charge.
However, if the quality of M20 grade concrete is in mass, it is advisable to use the design mix concrete.


Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete

(for small and scattered job and as per approval of engineer in Charge)

Nominal mix design may be adopted for other grades of concrete as well as discussed above…


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“We should attempt to bring nature, houses, and human beings together in a higher unity.” Ludwig

Format for Project Quality Management Document (QMS)

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Format for Project Quality Management Document (QMS)

SK Saxena   PMP

Q4       SK 26  Dt  May 03, 2019


“Bad things do happen; how I respond to them defines my character and the quality of my life. I can choose to sit in perpetual sadness, immobilized by the gravity of my loss, or I can choose to rise from the pain and treasure the most precious gift I have – life itself.”           Walter Anderson 


The QMS is developed for Construction Projects. It is then issued for implementation in ongoing works / rehabilitation projects and is need based. However, it is open for improvements during construction operations. It shall provide an easy access to QA QC team (existing staff and newcomers) in implementing the QA QC processes and procedures. It also covers the scope of work and objectives to be achieved, necessary guidance, and roles and responsibilities for QA QC team members for achieving the desired objective. The information from the outputs of system implementation, observations and suggestions can be used for reporting, monitoring, analysis, review and further improvements.


Project QMS revolves around the Project Quality Management such as

Plan Quality Management

Manage Quality

Control Quality

Organization’s Quality Policy

(The general goals of the QC program in conformation to Organization’s policy which includes Project Environment Management)

(Please refer to our following blogs on Quality Requirements / Management)


Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)


Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects


Health Management at Construction Projects

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects


Suggestive Contents

Project Type

Construction of a major project (New Projects and Rehabilitation Projects) that includes dam, powerhouse, spillway, tunnels, infrastructure, commercial and large real state buildings and appurtenant facilities.


 Project Definition: (It may include following points)

  • Location

  • Purpose of the Proposed Construction.

  • Background Information on the Construction Contracts

  • The brief details of Owner, Designer, Construction Agency / Supervision Agency

  • Supervision and Control Responsibility

  • Organization for QC staff / Supervision staff, Personnel and Key Personnel with Experience, Authority, Responsibility

  • And other Project Related Requirements


Commitment to the definition, implementation and control of improvement programs, may be achieved

By suitable education, training and awareness all the Constructor’s personnel will act professionally, responsibly and will have an awareness and commitment to quality.

By the development and adoption of innovative methods and technologies, developing emotional intelligence as well as by the motivation and satisfaction of the workforce, the Sponsor and Constructor will increase the effectiveness of its own processes to the satisfaction of Stakeholders.

Workforce commitment and participation in the continual improvement process through the exchange of experience, awareness, information on the results achieved.

Verification by management through internal audits, critical analyses on the results achieved and a periodic review of the principles recorded for the QMS.



QMS is based on processes, (every process is supported by inputs, outputs, and tools and techniques) and their implementation by TQM and TQP

QMS is a system that includes the continuous improvement cycle as part of management: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA).


The Quality Management system considers:

  • Determining the necessary processes for the quality management system and their application by the organization.

  • Determining the sequence and use of the identified processes.

  • Determining the criteria and methods required to make sure that both the operation and the control of these processes are effective.

  • The availability of resources required to support the operation and follow-up of these processes.

  • The process measurement documentation, analysis, review and feedback.


The quality system to be implemented on the Project works are based on the ISO 9001 :2008 standard recommendations. – Do what  is Decided.

Quality Management

According to the Quality policy for the Project Organization, Quality Assurance (QA) / Quality management / Quality Control will be executed by the Constructor, (including the sub-contractors) and administered by the Project QA/QC Department in reference to Project Quality Plan.


Quality management will be applied all knowledge area plans, their execution and monitoring and control.

(Knowledge Areas- Project Integration, Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Communication, Risk, Procurement, and Stakeholder plans)d


QMS Content Format -Tentative

—————————————————————--A Suggestive Format for Project Quality Management Document


 Starting from the Cover Page




Ref: ———- date


Status (Revision No. )




Project Organization ———–

Name of Project ———–


The Employer—-

The Constructor ————






QMS:  The   general goals of the QMS program Project definition:

  • Location

  • Purpose of the proposed construction.

  • Background information on the construction contracts

  • The Owner, Designer, Construction Agency

  • Supervision and control responsibility

Organization For QC staff / Supervision staff, personnel and key personnel with CV , authority, responsibility, 

Scope of work and oblectives.

Human Resources Management.

Construction management personnel / QA QC personnel.

Lines of communication and authority for rejection approval and stopping of work Duties and responsibilities of CS, QA/QC and CA team members.

 Inspection Plan /Inspection criteria and Field Practices (The criteria for inspection of contract work to assure meeting contract requirements)

Equipment and resources management Contractor operations

Coordination with contractor’s schedule

Training (A training program for field engineers and inspectors (Owner-Contractor-Supervision Agency)-In house- On site-out sourced)

      Study materials

      Classroom instruction

      On-the-job-training and supervision

      Proficiency testing and certification

      Knowledge of contract/TS

      Internal Audits


Laboratory Set Up Laboratories locations -their functions and equipment and calibration

     Main Laboratory

     Field Laboratory or

     Out sourced Testing Facilities

Project Quality Control Plan


Main Locations and Activities for implementation,

Laboratory supervision/duties and responsibilities

Mix designs-laboratory and field testing

List of tests and checks,

Checklists, Testing formats and procedures

Codes and references

Number and Specialties of QC Staff –based on construction methodology, locations and the construction schedule

Codes and references

Number and Specialties of QC Staff –based on construction methodology, locations and the construction schedule

Record keeping procedures

 Responsibility Chart

 Erosion Control and Environment Control  

 Environmental compliance plan

Erosion and sediment control plan

License requirements

Specialized plans, permits and approvals Frequency of inspections

Documentation and corrective actions

Important guidelines, references, Construction

Environmental deficiency report


Roles of Contractor, QA QC team and CS team,

BP inspection/ Concrete placement reports—Calibration, operation reports, trip card

Documentation and reporting mechanism,

QA QC activities

Daily Weekly and Monthly reports,

Non-Conformance Notices

Monitoring (SOB, CR and Site Meetings) Frequency of tests,

OK card Implementation procedure and documentation

Supplement material for PCR

Summery Information


Monitoring, Evaluation and Feedback

Appendix – may include

  • Organizational chart

  • Descriptions of duties and responsibilities of QC staff


  • List of contract documents

  • Materials testing schedule (in house and outsourcing)

  • Contractor’s schedule with resource utilization

  • Construction Inspection Checklist

  • Issue log, Change log

  • Other orders/ forms issued during construction stage


OK Cards Software’s—QMS, PM, MS project, Photos and Videos


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena

Project Quality and Management Processes

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About the Topic

                  Quality is never an accident.

                  It is always the result of

  • High intention,

  • Sincere effort,

  • Intelligent direction and

  • Skill full execution.


SK Saxena PMP


Project Quality and Management Processes

Quality is productivity of employees, who, after having a proper knowledge of work (after receive the training, knowing tools and instruction), execute their jobs.


Lack of quality …….

  • Non sustainable workmanship,

  • Unsafe structures,

  • Delays,

  • Cost overruns,

  • Time overruns

  • Disputes

As per ISO 9000 the general principles for QMS revolves around following points:

  1. Customer focus

  2. Leadership

  3. Involving people

  4. Process approach

  5. Systems approach

  6. Continual improvement

  7. Factual decision making

  8. Mutually beneficial relationships

What is said about Quality (some additional quotes)?

  • Quality provides solutions to problems before they occur

  • Quality is flexibility, the willingness to change to meet demands,

  • Quality is efficiency in doing things quickly and correctly,

  • Quality is a process of ongoing improvements

  • Quality is meeting a schedule, being on time,

  • Quality is a set of coordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance

  • Quality———–Output fit for use


 Characteristics of quality


Quality is

  • Technical           – Strong and durable

  • Psychological           – Aesthetics

  • Time oriented            – Reliability and availability

  • Ethical                     – Courtesy honesty


Approach to Quality

Quality has been a matter of concern in product development and as such it has passed through various stages and approaches during its development, from traditional to scientific and management approach. The stages from statistical approach to TQM are as follows;


  • Statistical quality control

  • Process development                       – 1940-50

  • Japanese Quality Revolution -1960-70

(Raw material – design – production – marketing)

  • Zero defect movement USA         – 1970

  • Total Quality Management         – 1980-90


Project Quality Management Processes

Plan Quality Management: Assessment of project quality requirements, specifications standards for acceptable product delivery and the necessary documentation and records required for quality operations

Manage Quality: Implementation of Planned Quality

 managements processes for achieving desired Goals

Control Quality: Monitoring and control the

Implementation methodology.

 Inputs, Tools and technique and Outputs of Project Quality Management Processes (As per PMBOK 6th Edition)


Actions required for Project Quality Management

Find organization’s policy, procedures, and align them to need of the project.

Know about the project in depth and find out the processes required for its completion.

Know about all the processes, procedures specifications etcetera and tailor them as per project requirement. May use PMBOK guide and Project management standard in tailoring the project.

Ensure that quality plan incorporates the project scope and the work specifications.

The plan must be reviewed during the project execution process. Any changes required must be got approved and be made the part of quality plan.

Ensure that quality assurance measures and quality control metrics is objectively defined for use.

Quality plan should be focused on customer’s requirements.

Incorporate in quality plans the,

Quality Standards

Quality procedures

Sampling and testing methods

Documentation of raw data and test results.

Data analysis processes

Quality report generation

Add quality aspects in methodology of different works

Set standards for acceptance of test results

Verify the assumptions made in quality planning

Ensure that the required staff is posted in laboratories and fields

Quality team must be dedicated one and should no perform in influence

Staff must be aware of lessons learned  on quality matters from the other projects

Quality issue logs should be maintained and monitored for urgent resolution.

Manage quality within project constraints

Issuance of reports

Holding meetings and reviews

Quality communication at site, site meetings, and maintaining Site Order Books

Electronics access of communication to seniors

Approval of suppliers

Laboratory audits and quality audits

Development of laboratory system

Joint inspection of works for taking proactive measures

Staff training for laboratory staff and other staff engaged in construction.

Record keeping


Gold Plating

Gold plating in project management means adding additional features to the product as regards to its aesthetics, cost time etcetera, which are outside the scope of the project. Anything done beyond project scope will be risky as it may create an impression on the customer that the project may be having surplus money. Any such saving should be brought in the notice of sponsor/customer timely.

Project works are complex, and it is advised to do what is needed. Project scope should not be changed. Gold plating may have effect on project constraints

If project manager of team upgrades the specifications of the project without customer involvement, then it is violation of specifications and quality.


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena

Our other blogs which may be helpful for the current blog:


General – Workplace Enviroment


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2


Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence


Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

Project Management Framework Essentials 2


TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility



Quality at Construction Projects- The Start Up

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Quality at Construction Projects- The Start Up


Q SK - 24 March 29, 2019 -

Manage All Your Daily Quality Tasks
Through A understanding of Quality

Quality (the degree of excellence) is necessary for every output (in the form of  goods, services and results) required to be produced for a purpose ( in every field associated with the development of mankind, the nation and the universe , in a sustained environment associated with land water, air and the management of social, political, cultural, economic etcetera parameters) . For the quality output, the system requires quality inputs and quality process / techniques (designed and developed by quality innovation by quality people – in thoughts, words and actions)

Quality is defined as the degree to which the project fulfils the requirements

As such for a quality output we require

Quality people

Quality inputs

Quality processes

(for any and all type of output)


Special terms / words associated with Quality output


Quality Management system (QMS)

Quality Management System (QMS) is a series of functions and activities (sub-processes, stages, phases, etc.) within an organization, that work together in order to achieve the goals of the organization.

 A good QMS will:

  • Set direction and meet user’s expectations

  • Improve process control

  • Reduce wastage

  • Lower costs

  • Increase market share

  • Facilitate training

  • Involve Staff, Management and Stakeholders

  • Raise morale

Steps involved in development of QMS are:


  • Design

  • Build

  • Control

  • Deployment

  • Measurement

  • Review

  • Improve

Quality is an investment in project construction, and if managed, it reduces cost of construction because, in the long term doing it the right things the first time, is less expensive (than setting it right later when it costs multiple times).

1. Quality Planning

A quality plan is a document that provides specific details of quality standards, good practices, resources, specifications, processes, inputs, tools and techniques for a desired output, along with details of quality metrics, control. corrective actions and monitoring and reporting mechanisms. This document may be revised if required for managing the quality aspects during the execution period.

2. Quality Assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of assuring the quality output of the product or services. It assures that the measures planned for execution process are put in practice during the execution period effectively and efficiently to get the desired and acceptable output.

 3. Total Quality People

Total Quality People /Persons are the people / persons with 


(personality, nature, disposition, temperament, temper, mentality, etcetera)

(honesty, uprightness, good character, righteousness, morality, nobility, high-mindedness, right-mindedness, noble-mindedness, truthfulness, trustworthiness etcetera)

 Good Values

(Dependability. Reliability, Loyalty. Commitment. Open-mindedness. Consistency. Honesty. Efficiency)

 Positive attitude

A positive attitude helps a person to look at the positive side of the things – a look for optimism, good things to happen, – and people with such attitudes are easy to handle and can handle others as well.

A person with a positive attitude learns from the mistakes and failures and takes risk. They are confident and takes challenges effectively.

Such people / persons

Increase productivity

Solve problem

Believe in team work

Create good work environment

Are loyal to organization

 Maintain good relationship


 Help each other

 Have pleasing personality


Total Quality Management focuses the organization’s goals on a well-planned QMS for meeting the needs of the customer. It is defined as successful implementation of Quality Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, so that the product is delivered to the requirement and satisfaction of customer.

5. Quality Control

QC is a system of maintaining standards in manufactured products by testing samples of the outputs against the specifications.  In practice data is collected on sample basis for the attributes of the product or services output, and the variations, if any are reported for improved quality assurances or corrections on the basis of defined and approved metrics.

Quality Control focuses on the process of producing the product or service with the intent of eliminating problems that might result in defects.

Quality Assurance makes sure you are doing the right things, the right way.

Various definitions of Quality

1. Fit for Purpose

If the product or service developed has no problem in its use, it can be said that the product is fit for use and is considered as quality product. The quality attributes may not be measurable

2. Conformance to Requirements

 When a project is started, its scope and requirements are determined, and specifications are set.

After the development of the product or service or result, it is checked for the fulfillment of requirements. If it is conforming to the requirements it is considered as quality output.

3. Quality Is Cost

Cost effective product is developed. The stress is on less costly output but with a product of acceptable standard.

4. Quality is Price

Product development is considered at low price of economic design, but the output is a quality product.

5.Quality is a Standard

The quality of the product is assessed based on Industry standards.

6. Quality is Value for Performance

The developed product is valued for its performance. The customer may not mind the cost of the product against its valuable performance.


Our quality thoughts help us to provide quality directions.

Our quality work output helps in development of society

Our quality actions improvise the outputs in any field of action services, works, production etcetera.


Quality has several definitions given by the quality GURus and eminent personalities.

Why- because it is important in every aspects of actions / outputs. It is everywhere: in our thoughts, words, actions and these encompasses the whole area where we talk about the quality.

There are various actions imbibed in Quality Management System (QMS) that are developed and have lot of directions that includes what to do, what to avoid, what processes and procedures to follow and ultimately all of them depends on the organization’s policy.

Today lot of action plans are available as what to do in managing quality. The ultimate thing require is to have positive thought process and positive efforts to convert the ideas in action.

Sincere actions are required by following the planning process, execution process, the control process.  the analysis of control data, the necessary changes to plan and re- execution of plans and so on.

 All this require dedicated teams, sincere actions, based on skill, knowledge and tool and techniques required for quality output.

 So, it is necessary that the thoughts, words, and deeds are sincere, before going for quality management.

 It is noticed that, quality planning, if done based on the quality policy is almost right.

Problem arises when the planned assurance measures and feedback after quality control operations are defective. This may be by not putting the right person at the right job and the effect of project constraint.

The project management must remain involved in managing the processes of project effectively. The Knowledge area and process groups have all the required processes. So, it is important that all the knowledge area planning when put to execution and monitoring should have sincere actions.

A person who believes only in progress output, or financial output may not have belief in quality output. And if such persons are supported by the top management, forget there shall be any quality output.

All the processes of the project must have quality handling to give quality output and this depends on how the processes are being managed. That is why quality is more a management issue.

Most of the fruitful results of the actions are based on quality planning, A good planning orients the execution towards the desired output

When things are planned, the direction of movement is known. And if not planned it is directionless situation and may achieve undesired output or any output.


Quality as defined in dictionary:

“The quality of product (services or goods) is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of customers”-Bergman Kiofsjo-1994


Quality GURUS

And their Contribution for Quality

W Edwards Deming

PDCA, Kaizen (continuous improvement)

Joseph Juran

Do it right first time

Philips Crosby

Cost of Quality (Prevention Costs, Appraisal Costs,Failure Costs)

Shigeo Shingo

Poka-Yoke, Mistake Proofing, SMED, Just in Time Production, and Jidoka.

K Ishikawa

-the quality does not mean the only the quality of product, but also, after sales service,the company itself and the human life

Taiichi Ohno

Seven Wastes


 “Quality is never an accident. It is always the result of intelligent effort.” – John Ruskin


 “Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”.


 “Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning.” – Bill Gates


 “If you can’t describe what you are doing as a process, you don’t know what you’re doing.” – W. Edwards Deming


Our other blogs which may be helpful for the current blog:


General – Workplace Enviroment


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2


Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence


Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

Project Management Framework Essentials 2


TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxen

Earned Value Management – EV AC PV Curves and Variences

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Earned Value Management


PV AC EV Curves & Variances

PM SK 23 March 24, 2019

PV AC EV Curves

PV curve is the planned value curve.

Whenever the project is planned then the curve plotted between the cumulative planned expenditure of the project with respect to time line is called PV (Planned Value) Curve. It is to be ensured that the expenditure done on the project must follow this line values. However, depending upon the project execution period environment there may be variations of actual cost (AC) with respect to PV, but there should be monitoring for such variations, and necessary alignment in PV and AC should be maintained.

If at any time AC value is above or below the PV value, it tells us that the expenses are than the desired values and required controls are exercised accordingly.

In case of larger variations which are not controllable, the PV may be revised with a proper approval.

AC= Actual money spent up to a time.


PV=Planned value up to a time

It is clear now what is PV and AC.

There is another important term which is called Earned Value (EV)

Even after spending (AC) up to planned expenditure (PV), there is no guarantee that the value of work done is in conformity with the AC. (Suppose the value of work is 100 up to a point on time line and the expender done is 100, it does not ensure that the work is 100 percent complete.  We must ascertain what percentage of work is done and what is its value. The value of this work done is earned Value (EV))

Therefore, the value of actual work done is determined and it is called Earned Value (EV).

EV= Is the value of actual work done from the money s(AC)

The EV PV and AC data on the timeline can be analyzed to get meaningful information.

EV-PV=Schedule Variance (the relation between PV and EV)


Schedule Variance (SV) = Earned Value (EV) – Planned Value (PV)

If SV is positive, it means that the actual value of work done is more than the planned value and the progress is ahead of schedule.

If SV is negative, it means that the actual value of work done is less than the planned value and the progress is behind schedule.

Cost Variance (CV) = Earned Value (EV) – Actual Cost (AC)

If CV is positive, it means that the actual value of work done is more than the planned value

If CV is negative, it means that the actual value of work done is less than the planned value and the project is over budgeted


Example of Schedule Variance (SV) and Cost variance (CV

In a project with a budgeted cost of $ 100,000, for a period of 18 months, following data was noticed after a period of 10 months:

PV at 10 months= $ 70000

Money spent=$ 75000

Work complete = 40 percent

Find the project’s Schedule Variance and cost variances and the inference from this analysis


Given in the question:


Actual Cost (AC) = $ 75000

Planned Value (PV) = $ 70000

 Earned Value (EV) = $40000 (40 % of $100000)

 Schedule Variance =Earned Value – Planned Value

 = 40,000 – 70000

 = – 30,000

Inference: The SV is -30000 and the project is behind the schedule

Cost Variance = Earned Value – Actual Cost

 CV = EV – AC

 = 40,000 – 75000

= –35000

Inference: The Cost Variance is -35000, and the project is over budgeted



The PV AC and EV curves are shown below:

The above curves are based on the following data;



Monthly Expenses


Schedule Variance

Cost Varience

S N0.











































































































For Follow up Next:

Budget at Completion (BAC)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

 For follow up Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

To Complete performance Index (TCPI)

View Earned value Management   S Curve


Earned Value Management – S Curve

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management


Earned Value Management - S Curve

Project Management- SK 22


S-Curve and project Management

S Curve is used for planning, monitoring, controlling, analyzing, and forecasting project’s status, progress, & performance over time and can be used to find the historical trends in project development

A project when planned, needs money for its execution, along with the requirement for other parameters (Man, Material, Money, Methods, Motivation, Management Etcetera). The project activities / tasks are sequenced as per requirements on time line of the project. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks the activities / tasks into small components for different units to work on them, and as such the cost aspects of the works are ascertained (determined in scientific manner / observations).


With the help of WBS and the schedule it is ascertained how much money is required periodically. Mostly in all the project the pace of work starts slowly in the starting phase of the project. After that the speed of execution of project increases and this stage continues for most of the project work to get completed. In the closing stage of the project the pace of work slows down, and the project gets completed after some time.

The requirement of fund is therefore analogous to the pace of work.Let us consider the project period of 12 months. The money required as described above is tabulated as monthly requirement or fund flow requirement or the planned requirement of project work.

The table below shows the monthly and cumulative fund flow requirement.


Monthly Expenses

Cumulative Expenses









































The graph between the cumulative fund flow and project time line is given below. The curve generated as such is a Sigmoidal Curve (Mathematically) and has a shape resembling the letter ‘S’. Hence is called S-Curve. Its use is also in business and other operations along with life sciences. The curve shown below is a S–Curve

S-curve is an important management tool in project management. This represents project fund flow and may be revised during project period based on approved changes. S- curve is based on planned expenses. Actual expenses (AC) are plotted along with earned values (EV) on time scale. The graphical analysis of the plotted curve data gives three important data at particular time as follows:

PV= the planned value (S-Curve)

Ac= the actual money spent

EV= the value of work done.

The curves of AC, PV, EV may further be analyzed to get the following data:

Schedule Variance (SV)

Cost Variance (CV)

Budget at Completion (BAC)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

To Complete performance Index (TCPI)

General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and  for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena                                                              

S No.
General – Workplace Enviroment
EI 1
SK 1
Aug 3, 2018
Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2
EI 2
SK 2
Aug 12, 2018
Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2
EI 3
SK 3
Aug 17, 2018
Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence
PM 1
SK 4
Aug 30, 2018
Project Management Framework Essentials – 1
PM 2
SK 5
Sep 4, 2018
Project Management Framework Essentials 2
PM 3
 SK 6
Sep 12, 2018
TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility
PM 4
SK 7
Sept, 18, 2018
Management Skills to Manage Unlawful Actions
PM 5
SK 8
Sep. 19, 2018
Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2
Q 1
SK 9
Oct 4, 2018
Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)
Q 2
 SK 10
Oct 12, 2018
Project Manager
PM 6
SK 11
Oct 18, 2018
PM 7
SK 12
Oct 15, 2018
The Role of Project Manager
PM 8
SK 13
Oct 24, 2108
Project Organizations
PM 9
SK 114
Nov 10, 2018
Project Completion Report Format
PM 10
SK 15
Nov 28, 2108
Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects
SK !6
Dec 13, 2018
Health Management at Construction Projects
SK  17
Dec 15, 2018
TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

SK 18
Dec. 27, 2018
Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

SK 19
Jan 1, 2019
Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.

Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.

RS 20
Jan 11, 2019
Project Closure Report

Project Closure Report

SK 21
Feb 13, 2019

Project Closure Report

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Project Closure Report.

SK Saxena PMP      

Project Closing

Any project as per its definition is a temporary endeavor and it must be closed for further operations. The project closure signifies the end of project and starting of operation theoretically, but in actual practice the operations team starts taking over the project before its completion, and some cosmetic construction works, or the left-over works continue even after start of operations.

These operations and works are of non-interfering nature and overlapping most of the time. But there must be a dead line for overlapping period in between the two and it is mentioned in the project closure report, if required.

Project Closure is an important part of project management processes but is overlooked by the project team as it has no home or the lack of interest of management, particularly if business expansion is not required especially in small business operations and small organizations. Or the organization is in hurry to take new ventures or the project is not successful to the desired extent. It happens if the objective of the project, gets linked to project deliverable only in reference to cost and time overrun.

Project closing is the part of project management process group and it should be given the same importance as other process groups.

Project if not closed:

1-Reduces the credibility and responsibility of the project team

2-Organisations may not have guidance for its business expansion

3-Related projects may have risks by not sharing the Project Closure report

 There are two process of project closure: The Procurement Closure and the Administrative Closure.



According to A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), “The Project Closing Process Group consists of those processes performed to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations. This process group, when completed, verifies that the defined processes are completed within all of the Process Groups to close the project of phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes that the project or project phase is complete”

Some tips for closing project

Project Management consists of managing all process groups of all knowledge areas. All knowledge areas are planned initially and incorporate subsequent amendments in them, if amended during execution. In closing operation, it is to be ensured that project is complete as planned, knowledge area wise.

Project need closure, be it successful or not successful to the desired objective or without achievement of objective. In all these positions it is necessary to know at closing stage the  status of project with respect to baseline.

A closure of the project is a formal orderly end of the project activities. The contents of the closure report are used in taking up the next project or benchmarking the existing project or for providing solution to the ongoing projects. Once the project is closed the formal acceptance is taken from the stakeholders


Closure may be of the phase of project or project.

Closing exercise is done at predetermined time or at the end of processes or project.


Project closure requirements include

Project Audits


Deliverables status

Acceptance status

Closing of contracts

Resources reassignment details

Transfer of Knowledge to operation team


The processes require (as for all processes) the inputs, the tools and techniques, and the outputs, and these depends on the nature and type of the project,  as project is unique.

The process guidelines are addressed in PMBOK Guide and may be adopted and customized as per need. The excerpts from the book are given below:


Project Charter

Project management Plan (all Knowledge Area Plans such as Cost, Time, Quality. Communication. Risk, Procurement and others)

Project Documents

Assumption Log

Basis of Estimates

Change Log

Issue Log

Lessons Learnt

Miles Stone List

Project Communication

Quality Control Measurements

Quality Report

Requirements Documentation

Risk Register

Risk Report

Accepted Deliverables

Business Documents

Business Case

Benefit Management Plan


Procurement Documents

Organization Process Assets

Tools and techniques

Expert Judgement

Data Analysis

Document Analysis

Regression Analysis

Trend Analysis

Variance Analysis



Project Document Updates

Lessons Learned Register

Final Project (Product, Service. Results, Transition Knowledge)

Final Reports

Organization Processes Assets Report


 During the process of project execution, the project documents are maintained and updated as the ongoing works or activities are completed. This is necessary as later it may not be possible to recoup the data and information (the project team may not have a home during completion stage of the project). At the time of closure, the contents of these documents are finalized.

 The lesson learnt during the project execution are also finalized and it becomes an important document of project closure process. The lesson learned contents may include scope management, change controls, issues and their resolutions, risks and other knowledge area controls specifying the important steps taken which were not envisaged during the planning stage.


A project after the closure, is transferred to operations and maintenance team of the customer or organization itself. An overlap in the project and operation team on timeline is desirable, as it facilitates the smooth transition by better understanding the project deliverables and operation requirement.


It describes the business case outcomes, the charter envisaged status, with variations for scope management, cost, time, resources, quality objectives and other Knowledge Area important variations, issues and resolution along with status of Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Corporate Social Responsibility.


Some important terms defined in brief


Assumption Log

The assumption logs are of two types:  high level and low-level assumptions.
Assumptions are anything / parameter in project management / business management, which are not known with definiteness, but these are accepted as true or certain to carry forward planning of knowledge area activities.


These assumptions are verified during project life cycle and as such a log is maintained, so that assumptions are not missed from verification for final acceptance. In business case, the assumptions are considered as high level and in project life cycle are considered as low level.

 When going for planning knowledge areas, for so many actions, parameters are assumed for planning in first stage and later when the assumption is not found correct, it is rectified to the desired extent during the project life cycle, be it in business case or project definition.

Expert Judgement


Expert Judgement is a technique, in which judgement is provided for process development, based on available specifications, expertise in product development and is valid for processes of the project management.

 The environment considers the education, the knowledge, the skills and experience of the work force involved for project operations.


The judges  team may consist of specialists, journalists who provide judgement for all knowledge areas, based on organizational strategy, project requirement, best practices of the related projects, etcetera for management fields, such as analysis of data and information, outputs, and best management practices of business industry and technical knowledge.

Data Analysis

Data collection and analysis provides  information for knowledge and actions, and is done for all types of data such as for costing, quality, and variances etcetera, for decision making.
    Also the type of analysis may  includes the existing project documents ( both during planning and generated during execution stage).  The document selected depends on the type of the processes involved.


They refer to the outcome of the project and establishes that products, service or results are to the satisfaction of customer (As agreed for business) and as such the project deliverables must be acceptable to the customer. Acceptance of deliverables is a requirement for project closure.

Issue Logs

Problems are continuously faced during project life cycle and if solutions are not provided, these becomes issues to be taken up at project at higher level for solutions. The issues are due to gaps in planning or project operations not sincerely taken up or may be due to unknown risks and may include health, safety, security, environment and corporate social responsibility issues.

Project Document Updates

Updates are provided to all formerly control documents throughout the life cycle of the project. The updates to the documents are the changes and as such these should be the part of the change log. These documents include


All generated documents during project life cycle

Joint Inspections

Testing records


Project history

Operation and Maintenance Manuals

As executed drawings

Quality and HSSE manuals

Contract task performance list

Benefits transferred in stages of the project

Construction Manual

Corporate social responsibility performance report

Requirement Documents

The Requirement documentation is a documentation of all the business requirements, starting from high level in business management to low level in project management. It is part of scope management. The requirements may be categorized. The fulfilling of requirements adds to business value and as such all the requirements from start to end in the project life cycle are tracked with requirement traceability matrix

Activity List

Activity list is the list of activities required to be taken up from project activities. Each activity is defined with work description so that it is understood by the project team and the constructor.

The milestones are tools in project management that mark points on the project timeline, that depicts required agreed outputs. These points are to be achieved in project as per the timeline. And if not, the actions are taken in project execution process for stressing that these millstones remain as scheduled.

Basis of Estimation

Time duration of the project is an important aspect, and it needs to be maintained to avoid time overrun and then the cost overrun. The time duration derivations must be based on tested procedures and based on time durations estimation. The document may include


Estimation details
Assumptions if any
Constraint considered
Risk associated with duration estimation

The basis of estimation must inform the confidence level of estimation and the range of variation of duration.

Project Business Documentation

The documents include the project business case and the project benefit management plan. Project Manager must have the thorough study of the documents to align the project development with business.

Quality Control Measurements
Project Quality is assured in quality management document with formats approved for measuring the control quality actions.
Any variation in excess to specified variances must be discussed and new formats be got approved if required.

Project Communications
It is most important project management part and is taken up with verbal and nonverbal means. The purpose is to appraise the stakeholders about the progress of the project milestones, deliverables, cost and time overrun etcetera important for assessment at the high level, and at the low level, that is within the project, the communications necessary for all project process execution,

Risk Register

Risk register it is a key planning tool for risk management plans. The risk assessment is based on probability and it may be true or false. Utmost care is needed to monitor the identified risk timely. The risks are documented in Register along with their attributes. Format of register may contain details as
Risk priority
Risk category
Risk Trigger
Response strategy
Risk owners
Risk period and response date

Agreement is a negotiated and usually legally enforceable understanding between two or more parties. The standard documents are available for agreements which can be customized for desired use. (A contract is a specific type of agreement that, by its terms and elements, is legally binding and enforceable in a court of law.) FIDIC and world bank contract document guidelines may be adopted 

Procurement documentation
These documentations includes relevant document of pre-tender stage, tender finalization stage and contract administration period. Procurement document closure is necessary before the project closure. Documents in litigation process may be an exception.



Project Closeout begins with a Post-Implementation Review (PIR). The PIR is done after getting feedback from the

Project Team



All-important key stakeholders

Other stakeholders


The feedback taken on the desired project scope / requirements is evaluated and discussed in meetings.

The outcome of the meetings is


Finding the good practices

Identify the Lessons learnt

Deposited them in repository for future use


Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.


Please refer to format for  Project Completion Report Blog on TechConsults. (


Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.       John F. Kennedy

Today’s active kids are tomorrow’s healthy adults. Yet children and adolescents are not moving enough which is a serious concern considering we are living in a melting pot of chronic diseases. Our society will pay the price for young people’s profound lack of exercise if we fail to turn the trend around.

FitWell’s  skilled  trainerwill getyou in shape.

Get Fit the  Happy  Way.

Walking, running, climbing. Your feet will be put to the test.

Today’s active kids are tomorrow’s healthy adults. Yet children and adolescents are not moving enough which is a serious concern considering we are living in a melting pot of chronic diseases. Our society will pay the price for young people’s profound lack of exercise if we fail to turn the trend around.

According to guidelines, children need minimum an HOUR of MODERATE to VIGROUS intensity exercise every day along with muscle strengthening and bone strengthening workout to stay fit and healthy. Even to excel at any sports, the basic fitness level of any budding athelete is of utmost importance.

The other benefits of regular physical exercise are

  1. Reduces the risk of obesity and childhood diabetes
  2. It boosts academic performances
  3. It improves confidence, leadership and team building qualities.
  4. It improves mental health, thus reduces anxiety, aggression mood swings and depression all related to the stresses of daily life.

As parents some ways to keep kids active are:

  1. Make physical activity part of the daily routine from household chores to an after dinner walks together.
  2. Allow enough time for free play. Kids can burn more calories and have more fun when left to their own.
  3. Kids are not miniature adults, tailor activities to age, stage and stability and their interest. Not every child wants to be a sports person but that doesn’t mean he or she should be deprived of any form of physical exercise.
  4. Look for after school exercise opportunity. It is okay to enroll for some hobby classes but make sure they get some time to do simple activities like cycling, running, skipping or play outdoors.
  5. Encourage healthier approach to diet
  6. Control screen time especially during meals and within 1 hour of sleep.
  7. Be a ROLE MODEL and stay active together, which along with giving benefits of staying fit will also provide an opportunity for a family bonding time. How about Sunday morning running sessions.!!

It is never too late to start an activity program and as parents it becomes our responsibility to raise fit, healthy and happy kids.


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