Design Concrete Mix Proportioning

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Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete


Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete

Data for concrete mix proportioning


Proportioning of Design Mix Concrete

Maximum nominal size of aggregate is used in design mix concrete. It is different from maximum size of the aggregate.

Following sieves are used for aggregate sieve analysis


Coarse aggregates (mm)

Fine Aggregates (mm / µm)


















The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is required to pass is called the maximum size of aggregate. (for 20 mm maximum size aggregate-all the material passes through next higher40 mm sieve)


The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is almost passed (90%-100%) is called the nominal maximum size. (for 20 mm nominal maximum size aggregate-all the material (90%-100%) passes through 20 mm sieve)


There are four basic ingredients for concrete production requirement:


Cementing Material

Fine Aggregates – size less than 4.75 mm

Coarse Aggregates – Size greater than 4.75 mm



Other ingredients that are added for Strength, Workability and Durability of concrete are listed below for different type of concretes


Fly Ash- Added in some quantity with cement replacement

Ground Granulated Blast furnace slag – Added in some quantity with cement replacement

Silica fumes – pozzolanic material used for high performance Concrete

Rice Husk Ash

Metakaolin (Metakaolin is the anhydrous calcined form of the clay mineral kaolinite. Minerals that are rich in kaolinite are known as china clay or kaolin, traditionally used in the manufacture of porcelain. The particle size of metakaolin is smaller than cement particles, but not as fine as silica fume – Source Wikipedia)

Super Plasticizer



All these ingredients are used for production of different type of concrete such as

  Ultra-high-performance concrete

 Self-consolidating concretes

 Vacuum Concrete


 Pervious concrete

 Nailing Concrete

High Strength Concrete

And other form of concrete as per design requirements

The proportioning uses the concept of on Abram’s Law (also called Abram’s water-cement ratio law) and Lyse’s Rule

ABRAM’S  LAW – Source Wikipedia

The law states the strength of a concrete mix is inversely related to the mass ratio of water to cement. As the water content increases, the strength of concrete decreases.


S = A / Bw/c{\displaystyle S={\frac {A}{B^{w/c}}}}


S is the strength of concrete

A and B are constants

w/c is the water – cement ratio, which varies from 0.3 to 1.20



According to Lyse’s rule it is not possible to predict the slump as water content changes. The need for this assessment arises when appropriate corrections must be applied to the water content to obtain the same slump without effecting any change to Water /cement ratio. (Consistency of cement refers to amount of water as percentage of cement)


Based on the above data, the Mix proportioning is done in reference to IS 456 2000 (Fourth revision) as per IS 10262-2019 for:

        Ordinary and standard grades of concrete

        High strength grades of concrete

        Self-compacting concrete

        Mass concrete


 General-Blog posts from TecConsults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and  for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics

Nominal Concrete Mix Proportioning

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management, Quality management system

Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete


“Each material has its specific characteristics which we must understand if we want to use it. This is no less true of concrete



Strength of Concrete

Constituents of concrete

Types of concrete

Tests on concrete materials

Nominal Mix Concrete

Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete



The concrete mix design is tested for its strength in laboratory. The test specimens used for are cylinders in USA and cubes in India and UK for example and these are used in various countries as per decision taken in these countries.
The concrete mix design in this BLOG shall be discussed on its cube strength basis. (The cube size is kept as 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm).


Strength of Concrete

Concrete strength units
Previously, concrete was defined as M 200 or M300. M200 means the 200 kg/centimeter 2.

Now it is defined as M20 or M30. M30 means 20 Newton/mm2.

 N = 1/10 Kf (Kilogram force)

As such M 200 Kg/cm2 is same as M 20 N/mm2
Also, 1N/mm2 = I MPa (Mega Pascale)

The concrete strength unit is in MPa (Megapascal) and N/mm

For example, as 30 MPa (Megapascal) or 30 N/ mm2


Constituents of concrete

The concrete Is composed of following ingredients (in specific limits as per codes and guidelines).
 Sand-Natural or Crushed or mix of natural and crushed

Aggregates- Natural or Crushed or mix of natural and crushed

Cementing Materials (Different type of cementing materials are – various types of cements, epoxy resins etcetera required for achieving the desired strength).



The above ingredients are manufacture or collected to the required specifications for concrete production, to maintain the designed concrete strength and workability (Workability means the ease with which concrete can be moved and placed in forms without segregation )

The strength of concrete, produced from these ingredients further depends on production and placement of concrete, along with variations in the properties of constituents of concrete.


Types of Concretes

Regular concrete (ordinary concrete up to M 60

High-strength concrete- Above M 60

Stamp ed concrete-Concrete laid over the main concrete such as architectural concrete

 High-performance concrete (have following desirable features)

Ease of placement

Compaction without segregation

Early age strengt 

Long-term mechanical properties



Heat of hydration


Volume stability

Long life in severe environments

Ultra-high-performance concrete

Self-consolidating concretes

Vacuum Concrete



Pervious concrete

 Nailing Concrete


Tests on concrete materials

The various tests suggested for constituents of concrete are as follows: (These may be modified as per work specifications)


The test results have defined limits of acceptance, adopted on good practices (standards, codes, etcetera)
Variations in quantities of concrete as required are done.

 In order to design a mix of desired strength the concrete, the concrete constituents are specifically proportioned on the basis of good experience, practices are available in the form standard and codes.


The results obtained based on mix proportioning are put to further trials and finally the desired mix proportion is used to produce concrete. It is a good practice to carry on mix proportioning at intervals to accommodate any variations in the qualities of constituents of concrete.


Finally, workability durability and strength are the factors that govern mix proportioning.


Nominal Mix Concrete

IS 456 – Plain and Reinforced concrete code of practice, suggest to use Nominal Mix concrete up to M20 and Design Mix concrete above M20
Nominal mix concrete is not designed and it may use excess quantity of cement and must be use for small quantiles of works  as per direction and approval of Engineer in Charge.
However, if the quality of M20 grade concrete is in mass, it is advisable to use the design mix concrete.


Proportioning of Nominal Mix Concrete

(for small and scattered job and as per approval of engineer in Charge)

Nominal mix design may be adopted for other grades of concrete as well as discussed above…


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Format for Project Quality Management Document (QMS)

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Format for Project Quality Management Document (QMS)

SK Saxena   PMP

Q4       SK 26  Dt  May 03, 2019


“Bad things do happen; how I respond to them defines my character and the quality of my life. I can choose to sit in perpetual sadness, immobilized by the gravity of my loss, or I can choose to rise from the pain and treasure the most precious gift I have – life itself.”           Walter Anderson 


The QMS is developed for Construction Projects. It is then issued for implementation in ongoing works / rehabilitation projects and is need based. However, it is open for improvements during construction operations. It shall provide an easy access to QA QC team (existing staff and newcomers) in implementing the QA QC processes and procedures. It also covers the scope of work and objectives to be achieved, necessary guidance, and roles and responsibilities for QA QC team members for achieving the desired objective. The information from the outputs of system implementation, observations and suggestions can be used for reporting, monitoring, analysis, review and further improvements.


Project QMS revolves around the Project Quality Management such as

Plan Quality Management

Manage Quality

Control Quality

Organization’s Quality Policy

(The general goals of the QC program in conformation to Organization’s policy which includes Project Environment Management)

(Please refer to our following blogs on Quality Requirements / Management)


Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)


Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects


Health Management at Construction Projects

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects


Suggestive Contents

Project Type

Construction of a major project (New Projects and Rehabilitation Projects) that includes dam, powerhouse, spillway, tunnels, infrastructure, commercial and large real state buildings and appurtenant facilities.


 Project Definition: (It may include following points)

  • Location

  • Purpose of the Proposed Construction.

  • Background Information on the Construction Contracts

  • The brief details of Owner, Designer, Construction Agency / Supervision Agency

  • Supervision and Control Responsibility

  • Organization for QC staff / Supervision staff, Personnel and Key Personnel with Experience, Authority, Responsibility

  • And other Project Related Requirements


Commitment to the definition, implementation and control of improvement programs, may be achieved

By suitable education, training and awareness all the Constructor’s personnel will act professionally, responsibly and will have an awareness and commitment to quality.

By the development and adoption of innovative methods and technologies, developing emotional intelligence as well as by the motivation and satisfaction of the workforce, the Sponsor and Constructor will increase the effectiveness of its own processes to the satisfaction of Stakeholders.

Workforce commitment and participation in the continual improvement process through the exchange of experience, awareness, information on the results achieved.

Verification by management through internal audits, critical analyses on the results achieved and a periodic review of the principles recorded for the QMS.



QMS is based on processes, (every process is supported by inputs, outputs, and tools and techniques) and their implementation by TQM and TQP

QMS is a system that includes the continuous improvement cycle as part of management: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA).


The Quality Management system considers:

  • Determining the necessary processes for the quality management system and their application by the organization.

  • Determining the sequence and use of the identified processes.

  • Determining the criteria and methods required to make sure that both the operation and the control of these processes are effective.

  • The availability of resources required to support the operation and follow-up of these processes.

  • The process measurement documentation, analysis, review and feedback.


The quality system to be implemented on the Project works are based on the ISO 9001 :2008 standard recommendations. – Do what  is Decided.

Quality Management

According to the Quality policy for the Project Organization, Quality Assurance (QA) / Quality management / Quality Control will be executed by the Constructor, (including the sub-contractors) and administered by the Project QA/QC Department in reference to Project Quality Plan.


Quality management will be applied all knowledge area plans, their execution and monitoring and control.

(Knowledge Areas- Project Integration, Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Communication, Risk, Procurement, and Stakeholder plans)d


QMS Content Format -Tentative

—————————————————————--A Suggestive Format for Project Quality Management Document


 Starting from the Cover Page




Ref: ———- date


Status (Revision No. )




Project Organization ———–

Name of Project ———–


The Employer—-

The Constructor ————






QMS:  The   general goals of the QMS program Project definition:

  • Location

  • Purpose of the proposed construction.

  • Background information on the construction contracts

  • The Owner, Designer, Construction Agency

  • Supervision and control responsibility

Organization For QC staff / Supervision staff, personnel and key personnel with CV , authority, responsibility, 

Scope of work and oblectives.

Human Resources Management.

Construction management personnel / QA QC personnel.

Lines of communication and authority for rejection approval and stopping of work Duties and responsibilities of CS, QA/QC and CA team members.

 Inspection Plan /Inspection criteria and Field Practices (The criteria for inspection of contract work to assure meeting contract requirements)

Equipment and resources management Contractor operations

Coordination with contractor’s schedule

Training (A training program for field engineers and inspectors (Owner-Contractor-Supervision Agency)-In house- On site-out sourced)

      Study materials

      Classroom instruction

      On-the-job-training and supervision

      Proficiency testing and certification

      Knowledge of contract/TS

      Internal Audits


Laboratory Set Up Laboratories locations -their functions and equipment and calibration

     Main Laboratory

     Field Laboratory or

     Out sourced Testing Facilities

Project Quality Control Plan


Main Locations and Activities for implementation,

Laboratory supervision/duties and responsibilities

Mix designs-laboratory and field testing

List of tests and checks,

Checklists, Testing formats and procedures

Codes and references

Number and Specialties of QC Staff –based on construction methodology, locations and the construction schedule

Codes and references

Number and Specialties of QC Staff –based on construction methodology, locations and the construction schedule

Record keeping procedures

 Responsibility Chart

 Erosion Control and Environment Control  

 Environmental compliance plan

Erosion and sediment control plan

License requirements

Specialized plans, permits and approvals Frequency of inspections

Documentation and corrective actions

Important guidelines, references, Construction

Environmental deficiency report


Roles of Contractor, QA QC team and CS team,

BP inspection/ Concrete placement reports—Calibration, operation reports, trip card

Documentation and reporting mechanism,

QA QC activities

Daily Weekly and Monthly reports,

Non-Conformance Notices

Monitoring (SOB, CR and Site Meetings) Frequency of tests,

OK card Implementation procedure and documentation

Supplement material for PCR

Summery Information


Monitoring, Evaluation and Feedback

Appendix – may include

  • Organizational chart

  • Descriptions of duties and responsibilities of QC staff


  • List of contract documents

  • Materials testing schedule (in house and outsourcing)

  • Contractor’s schedule with resource utilization

  • Construction Inspection Checklist

  • Issue log, Change log

  • Other orders/ forms issued during construction stage


OK Cards Software’s—QMS, PM, MS project, Photos and Videos


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena

Project Quality and Management Processes

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About the Topic

                  Quality is never an accident.

                  It is always the result of

  • High intention,

  • Sincere effort,

  • Intelligent direction and

  • Skill full execution.


SK Saxena PMP


Project Quality and Management Processes

Quality is productivity of employees, who, after having a proper knowledge of work (after receive the training, knowing tools and instruction), execute their jobs.


Lack of quality …….

  • Non sustainable workmanship,

  • Unsafe structures,

  • Delays,

  • Cost overruns,

  • Time overruns

  • Disputes

As per ISO 9000 the general principles for QMS revolves around following points:

  1. Customer focus

  2. Leadership

  3. Involving people

  4. Process approach

  5. Systems approach

  6. Continual improvement

  7. Factual decision making

  8. Mutually beneficial relationships

What is said about Quality (some additional quotes)?

  • Quality provides solutions to problems before they occur

  • Quality is flexibility, the willingness to change to meet demands,

  • Quality is efficiency in doing things quickly and correctly,

  • Quality is a process of ongoing improvements

  • Quality is meeting a schedule, being on time,

  • Quality is a set of coordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance

  • Quality———–Output fit for use


 Characteristics of quality


Quality is

  • Technical           – Strong and durable

  • Psychological           – Aesthetics

  • Time oriented            – Reliability and availability

  • Ethical                     – Courtesy honesty


Approach to Quality

Quality has been a matter of concern in product development and as such it has passed through various stages and approaches during its development, from traditional to scientific and management approach. The stages from statistical approach to TQM are as follows;


  • Statistical quality control

  • Process development                       – 1940-50

  • Japanese Quality Revolution -1960-70

(Raw material – design – production – marketing)

  • Zero defect movement USA         – 1970

  • Total Quality Management         – 1980-90


Project Quality Management Processes

Plan Quality Management: Assessment of project quality requirements, specifications standards for acceptable product delivery and the necessary documentation and records required for quality operations

Manage Quality: Implementation of Planned Quality

 managements processes for achieving desired Goals

Control Quality: Monitoring and control the

Implementation methodology.

 Inputs, Tools and technique and Outputs of Project Quality Management Processes (As per PMBOK 6th Edition)


Actions required for Project Quality Management

Find organization’s policy, procedures, and align them to need of the project.

Know about the project in depth and find out the processes required for its completion.

Know about all the processes, procedures specifications etcetera and tailor them as per project requirement. May use PMBOK guide and Project management standard in tailoring the project.

Ensure that quality plan incorporates the project scope and the work specifications.

The plan must be reviewed during the project execution process. Any changes required must be got approved and be made the part of quality plan.

Ensure that quality assurance measures and quality control metrics is objectively defined for use.

Quality plan should be focused on customer’s requirements.

Incorporate in quality plans the,

Quality Standards

Quality procedures

Sampling and testing methods

Documentation of raw data and test results.

Data analysis processes

Quality report generation

Add quality aspects in methodology of different works

Set standards for acceptance of test results

Verify the assumptions made in quality planning

Ensure that the required staff is posted in laboratories and fields

Quality team must be dedicated one and should no perform in influence

Staff must be aware of lessons learned  on quality matters from the other projects

Quality issue logs should be maintained and monitored for urgent resolution.

Manage quality within project constraints

Issuance of reports

Holding meetings and reviews

Quality communication at site, site meetings, and maintaining Site Order Books

Electronics access of communication to seniors

Approval of suppliers

Laboratory audits and quality audits

Development of laboratory system

Joint inspection of works for taking proactive measures

Staff training for laboratory staff and other staff engaged in construction.

Record keeping


Gold Plating

Gold plating in project management means adding additional features to the product as regards to its aesthetics, cost time etcetera, which are outside the scope of the project. Anything done beyond project scope will be risky as it may create an impression on the customer that the project may be having surplus money. Any such saving should be brought in the notice of sponsor/customer timely.

Project works are complex, and it is advised to do what is needed. Project scope should not be changed. Gold plating may have effect on project constraints

If project manager of team upgrades the specifications of the project without customer involvement, then it is violation of specifications and quality.


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena

Our other blogs which may be helpful for the current blog:


General – Workplace Enviroment


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2


Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence


Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

Project Management Framework Essentials 2


TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility



Quality at Construction Projects- The Start Up

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Quality at Construction Projects- The Start Up


Q SK - 24 March 29, 2019 -

Manage All Your Daily Quality Tasks
Through A understanding of Quality

Quality (the degree of excellence) is necessary for every output (in the form of  goods, services and results) required to be produced for a purpose ( in every field associated with the development of mankind, the nation and the universe , in a sustained environment associated with land water, air and the management of social, political, cultural, economic etcetera parameters) . For the quality output, the system requires quality inputs and quality process / techniques (designed and developed by quality innovation by quality people – in thoughts, words and actions)

Quality is defined as the degree to which the project fulfils the requirements

As such for a quality output we require

Quality people

Quality inputs

Quality processes

(for any and all type of output)


Special terms / words associated with Quality output


Quality Management system (QMS)

Quality Management System (QMS) is a series of functions and activities (sub-processes, stages, phases, etc.) within an organization, that work together in order to achieve the goals of the organization.

 A good QMS will:

  • Set direction and meet user’s expectations

  • Improve process control

  • Reduce wastage

  • Lower costs

  • Increase market share

  • Facilitate training

  • Involve Staff, Management and Stakeholders

  • Raise morale

Steps involved in development of QMS are:


  • Design

  • Build

  • Control

  • Deployment

  • Measurement

  • Review

  • Improve

Quality is an investment in project construction, and if managed, it reduces cost of construction because, in the long term doing it the right things the first time, is less expensive (than setting it right later when it costs multiple times).

1. Quality Planning

A quality plan is a document that provides specific details of quality standards, good practices, resources, specifications, processes, inputs, tools and techniques for a desired output, along with details of quality metrics, control. corrective actions and monitoring and reporting mechanisms. This document may be revised if required for managing the quality aspects during the execution period.

2. Quality Assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of assuring the quality output of the product or services. It assures that the measures planned for execution process are put in practice during the execution period effectively and efficiently to get the desired and acceptable output.

 3. Total Quality People

Total Quality People /Persons are the people / persons with 


(personality, nature, disposition, temperament, temper, mentality, etcetera)

(honesty, uprightness, good character, righteousness, morality, nobility, high-mindedness, right-mindedness, noble-mindedness, truthfulness, trustworthiness etcetera)

 Good Values

(Dependability. Reliability, Loyalty. Commitment. Open-mindedness. Consistency. Honesty. Efficiency)

 Positive attitude

A positive attitude helps a person to look at the positive side of the things – a look for optimism, good things to happen, – and people with such attitudes are easy to handle and can handle others as well.

A person with a positive attitude learns from the mistakes and failures and takes risk. They are confident and takes challenges effectively.

Such people / persons

Increase productivity

Solve problem

Believe in team work

Create good work environment

Are loyal to organization

 Maintain good relationship


 Help each other

 Have pleasing personality


Total Quality Management focuses the organization’s goals on a well-planned QMS for meeting the needs of the customer. It is defined as successful implementation of Quality Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, so that the product is delivered to the requirement and satisfaction of customer.

5. Quality Control

QC is a system of maintaining standards in manufactured products by testing samples of the outputs against the specifications.  In practice data is collected on sample basis for the attributes of the product or services output, and the variations, if any are reported for improved quality assurances or corrections on the basis of defined and approved metrics.

Quality Control focuses on the process of producing the product or service with the intent of eliminating problems that might result in defects.

Quality Assurance makes sure you are doing the right things, the right way.

Various definitions of Quality

1. Fit for Purpose

If the product or service developed has no problem in its use, it can be said that the product is fit for use and is considered as quality product. The quality attributes may not be measurable

2. Conformance to Requirements

 When a project is started, its scope and requirements are determined, and specifications are set.

After the development of the product or service or result, it is checked for the fulfillment of requirements. If it is conforming to the requirements it is considered as quality output.

3. Quality Is Cost

Cost effective product is developed. The stress is on less costly output but with a product of acceptable standard.

4. Quality is Price

Product development is considered at low price of economic design, but the output is a quality product.

5.Quality is a Standard

The quality of the product is assessed based on Industry standards.

6. Quality is Value for Performance

The developed product is valued for its performance. The customer may not mind the cost of the product against its valuable performance.


Our quality thoughts help us to provide quality directions.

Our quality work output helps in development of society

Our quality actions improvise the outputs in any field of action services, works, production etcetera.


Quality has several definitions given by the quality GURus and eminent personalities.

Why- because it is important in every aspects of actions / outputs. It is everywhere: in our thoughts, words, actions and these encompasses the whole area where we talk about the quality.

There are various actions imbibed in Quality Management System (QMS) that are developed and have lot of directions that includes what to do, what to avoid, what processes and procedures to follow and ultimately all of them depends on the organization’s policy.

Today lot of action plans are available as what to do in managing quality. The ultimate thing require is to have positive thought process and positive efforts to convert the ideas in action.

Sincere actions are required by following the planning process, execution process, the control process.  the analysis of control data, the necessary changes to plan and re- execution of plans and so on.

 All this require dedicated teams, sincere actions, based on skill, knowledge and tool and techniques required for quality output.

 So, it is necessary that the thoughts, words, and deeds are sincere, before going for quality management.

 It is noticed that, quality planning, if done based on the quality policy is almost right.

Problem arises when the planned assurance measures and feedback after quality control operations are defective. This may be by not putting the right person at the right job and the effect of project constraint.

The project management must remain involved in managing the processes of project effectively. The Knowledge area and process groups have all the required processes. So, it is important that all the knowledge area planning when put to execution and monitoring should have sincere actions.

A person who believes only in progress output, or financial output may not have belief in quality output. And if such persons are supported by the top management, forget there shall be any quality output.

All the processes of the project must have quality handling to give quality output and this depends on how the processes are being managed. That is why quality is more a management issue.

Most of the fruitful results of the actions are based on quality planning, A good planning orients the execution towards the desired output

When things are planned, the direction of movement is known. And if not planned it is directionless situation and may achieve undesired output or any output.


Quality as defined in dictionary:

“The quality of product (services or goods) is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of customers”-Bergman Kiofsjo-1994


Quality GURUS

And their Contribution for Quality

W Edwards Deming

PDCA, Kaizen (continuous improvement)

Joseph Juran

Do it right first time

Philips Crosby

Cost of Quality (Prevention Costs, Appraisal Costs,Failure Costs)

Shigeo Shingo

Poka-Yoke, Mistake Proofing, SMED, Just in Time Production, and Jidoka.

K Ishikawa

-the quality does not mean the only the quality of product, but also, after sales service,the company itself and the human life

Taiichi Ohno

Seven Wastes


 “Quality is never an accident. It is always the result of intelligent effort.” – John Ruskin


 “Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”.


 “Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning.” – Bill Gates


 “If you can’t describe what you are doing as a process, you don’t know what you’re doing.” – W. Edwards Deming


Our other blogs which may be helpful for the current blog:


General – Workplace Enviroment


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2


Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2


Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence


Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

Project Management Framework Essentials 2


TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility


General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and    for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxen

Earned Value Management – EV AC PV Curves and Variences

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Earned Value Management


PV AC EV Curves & Variances

PM SK 23 March 24, 2019

PV AC EV Curves

PV curve is the planned value curve.

Whenever the project is planned then the curve plotted between the cumulative planned expenditure of the project with respect to time line is called PV (Planned Value) Curve. It is to be ensured that the expenditure done on the project must follow this line values. However, depending upon the project execution period environment there may be variations of actual cost (AC) with respect to PV, but there should be monitoring for such variations, and necessary alignment in PV and AC should be maintained.

If at any time AC value is above or below the PV value, it tells us that the expenses are than the desired values and required controls are exercised accordingly.

In case of larger variations which are not controllable, the PV may be revised with a proper approval.

AC= Actual money spent up to a time.


PV=Planned value up to a time

It is clear now what is PV and AC.

There is another important term which is called Earned Value (EV)

Even after spending (AC) up to planned expenditure (PV), there is no guarantee that the value of work done is in conformity with the AC. (Suppose the value of work is 100 up to a point on time line and the expender done is 100, it does not ensure that the work is 100 percent complete.  We must ascertain what percentage of work is done and what is its value. The value of this work done is earned Value (EV))

Therefore, the value of actual work done is determined and it is called Earned Value (EV).

EV= Is the value of actual work done from the money s(AC)

The EV PV and AC data on the timeline can be analyzed to get meaningful information.

EV-PV=Schedule Variance (the relation between PV and EV)


Schedule Variance (SV) = Earned Value (EV) – Planned Value (PV)

If SV is positive, it means that the actual value of work done is more than the planned value and the progress is ahead of schedule.

If SV is negative, it means that the actual value of work done is less than the planned value and the progress is behind schedule.

Cost Variance (CV) = Earned Value (EV) – Actual Cost (AC)

If CV is positive, it means that the actual value of work done is more than the planned value

If CV is negative, it means that the actual value of work done is less than the planned value and the project is over budgeted


Example of Schedule Variance (SV) and Cost variance (CV

In a project with a budgeted cost of $ 100,000, for a period of 18 months, following data was noticed after a period of 10 months:

PV at 10 months= $ 70000

Money spent=$ 75000

Work complete = 40 percent

Find the project’s Schedule Variance and cost variances and the inference from this analysis


Given in the question:


Actual Cost (AC) = $ 75000

Planned Value (PV) = $ 70000

 Earned Value (EV) = $40000 (40 % of $100000)

 Schedule Variance =Earned Value – Planned Value

 = 40,000 – 70000

 = – 30,000

Inference: The SV is -30000 and the project is behind the schedule

Cost Variance = Earned Value – Actual Cost

 CV = EV – AC

 = 40,000 – 75000

= –35000

Inference: The Cost Variance is -35000, and the project is over budgeted



The PV AC and EV curves are shown below:

The above curves are based on the following data;



Monthly Expenses


Schedule Variance

Cost Varience

S N0.











































































































For Follow up Next:

Budget at Completion (BAC)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

 For follow up Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

To Complete performance Index (TCPI)

View Earned value Management   S Curve


Earned Value Management – S Curve

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management


Earned Value Management - S Curve

Project Management- SK 22


S-Curve and project Management

S Curve is used for planning, monitoring, controlling, analyzing, and forecasting project’s status, progress, & performance over time and can be used to find the historical trends in project development

A project when planned, needs money for its execution, along with the requirement for other parameters (Man, Material, Money, Methods, Motivation, Management Etcetera). The project activities / tasks are sequenced as per requirements on time line of the project. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks the activities / tasks into small components for different units to work on them, and as such the cost aspects of the works are ascertained (determined in scientific manner / observations).


With the help of WBS and the schedule it is ascertained how much money is required periodically. Mostly in all the project the pace of work starts slowly in the starting phase of the project. After that the speed of execution of project increases and this stage continues for most of the project work to get completed. In the closing stage of the project the pace of work slows down, and the project gets completed after some time.

The requirement of fund is therefore analogous to the pace of work.Let us consider the project period of 12 months. The money required as described above is tabulated as monthly requirement or fund flow requirement or the planned requirement of project work.

The table below shows the monthly and cumulative fund flow requirement.


Monthly Expenses

Cumulative Expenses









































The graph between the cumulative fund flow and project time line is given below. The curve generated as such is a Sigmoidal Curve (Mathematically) and has a shape resembling the letter ‘S’. Hence is called S-Curve. Its use is also in business and other operations along with life sciences. The curve shown below is a S–Curve

S-curve is an important management tool in project management. This represents project fund flow and may be revised during project period based on approved changes. S- curve is based on planned expenses. Actual expenses (AC) are plotted along with earned values (EV) on time scale. The graphical analysis of the plotted curve data gives three important data at particular time as follows:

PV= the planned value (S-Curve)

Ac= the actual money spent

EV= the value of work done.

The curves of AC, PV, EV may further be analyzed to get the following data:

Schedule Variance (SV)

Cost Variance (CV)

Budget at Completion (BAC)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

To Complete performance Index (TCPI)

General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact and  for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena                                                              

S No.
General – Workplace Enviroment
EI 1
SK 1
Aug 3, 2018
Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2
EI 2
SK 2
Aug 12, 2018
Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2
EI 3
SK 3
Aug 17, 2018
Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence
PM 1
SK 4
Aug 30, 2018
Project Management Framework Essentials – 1
PM 2
SK 5
Sep 4, 2018
Project Management Framework Essentials 2
PM 3
 SK 6
Sep 12, 2018
TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility
PM 4
SK 7
Sept, 18, 2018
Management Skills to Manage Unlawful Actions
PM 5
SK 8
Sep. 19, 2018
Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2
Q 1
SK 9
Oct 4, 2018
Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)
Q 2
 SK 10
Oct 12, 2018
Project Manager
PM 6
SK 11
Oct 18, 2018
PM 7
SK 12
Oct 15, 2018
The Role of Project Manager
PM 8
SK 13
Oct 24, 2108
Project Organizations
PM 9
SK 114
Nov 10, 2018
Project Completion Report Format
PM 10
SK 15
Nov 28, 2108
Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects
SK !6
Dec 13, 2018
Health Management at Construction Projects
SK  17
Dec 15, 2018
TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

SK 18
Dec. 27, 2018
Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

SK 19
Jan 1, 2019
Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.

Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.

RS 20
Jan 11, 2019
Project Closure Report

Project Closure Report

SK 21
Feb 13, 2019

Project Closure Report

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Project Closure Report.

SK Saxena PMP      

Project Closing

Any project as per its definition is a temporary endeavor and it must be closed for further operations. The project closure signifies the end of project and starting of operation theoretically, but in actual practice the operations team starts taking over the project before its completion, and some cosmetic construction works, or the left-over works continue even after start of operations.

These operations and works are of non-interfering nature and overlapping most of the time. But there must be a dead line for overlapping period in between the two and it is mentioned in the project closure report, if required.

Project Closure is an important part of project management processes but is overlooked by the project team as it has no home or the lack of interest of management, particularly if business expansion is not required especially in small business operations and small organizations. Or the organization is in hurry to take new ventures or the project is not successful to the desired extent. It happens if the objective of the project, gets linked to project deliverable only in reference to cost and time overrun.

Project closing is the part of project management process group and it should be given the same importance as other process groups.

Project if not closed:

1-Reduces the credibility and responsibility of the project team

2-Organisations may not have guidance for its business expansion

3-Related projects may have risks by not sharing the Project Closure report

 There are two process of project closure: The Procurement Closure and the Administrative Closure.



According to A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), “The Project Closing Process Group consists of those processes performed to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations. This process group, when completed, verifies that the defined processes are completed within all of the Process Groups to close the project of phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes that the project or project phase is complete”

Some tips for closing project

Project Management consists of managing all process groups of all knowledge areas. All knowledge areas are planned initially and incorporate subsequent amendments in them, if amended during execution. In closing operation, it is to be ensured that project is complete as planned, knowledge area wise.

Project need closure, be it successful or not successful to the desired objective or without achievement of objective. In all these positions it is necessary to know at closing stage the  status of project with respect to baseline.

A closure of the project is a formal orderly end of the project activities. The contents of the closure report are used in taking up the next project or benchmarking the existing project or for providing solution to the ongoing projects. Once the project is closed the formal acceptance is taken from the stakeholders


Closure may be of the phase of project or project.

Closing exercise is done at predetermined time or at the end of processes or project.


Project closure requirements include

Project Audits


Deliverables status

Acceptance status

Closing of contracts

Resources reassignment details

Transfer of Knowledge to operation team


The processes require (as for all processes) the inputs, the tools and techniques, and the outputs, and these depends on the nature and type of the project,  as project is unique.

The process guidelines are addressed in PMBOK Guide and may be adopted and customized as per need. The excerpts from the book are given below:


Project Charter

Project management Plan (all Knowledge Area Plans such as Cost, Time, Quality. Communication. Risk, Procurement and others)

Project Documents

Assumption Log

Basis of Estimates

Change Log

Issue Log

Lessons Learnt

Miles Stone List

Project Communication

Quality Control Measurements

Quality Report

Requirements Documentation

Risk Register

Risk Report

Accepted Deliverables

Business Documents

Business Case

Benefit Management Plan


Procurement Documents

Organization Process Assets

Tools and techniques

Expert Judgement

Data Analysis

Document Analysis

Regression Analysis

Trend Analysis

Variance Analysis



Project Document Updates

Lessons Learned Register

Final Project (Product, Service. Results, Transition Knowledge)

Final Reports

Organization Processes Assets Report


 During the process of project execution, the project documents are maintained and updated as the ongoing works or activities are completed. This is necessary as later it may not be possible to recoup the data and information (the project team may not have a home during completion stage of the project). At the time of closure, the contents of these documents are finalized.

 The lesson learnt during the project execution are also finalized and it becomes an important document of project closure process. The lesson learned contents may include scope management, change controls, issues and their resolutions, risks and other knowledge area controls specifying the important steps taken which were not envisaged during the planning stage.


A project after the closure, is transferred to operations and maintenance team of the customer or organization itself. An overlap in the project and operation team on timeline is desirable, as it facilitates the smooth transition by better understanding the project deliverables and operation requirement.


It describes the business case outcomes, the charter envisaged status, with variations for scope management, cost, time, resources, quality objectives and other Knowledge Area important variations, issues and resolution along with status of Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Corporate Social Responsibility.


Some important terms defined in brief


Assumption Log

The assumption logs are of two types:  high level and low-level assumptions.
Assumptions are anything / parameter in project management / business management, which are not known with definiteness, but these are accepted as true or certain to carry forward planning of knowledge area activities.


These assumptions are verified during project life cycle and as such a log is maintained, so that assumptions are not missed from verification for final acceptance. In business case, the assumptions are considered as high level and in project life cycle are considered as low level.

 When going for planning knowledge areas, for so many actions, parameters are assumed for planning in first stage and later when the assumption is not found correct, it is rectified to the desired extent during the project life cycle, be it in business case or project definition.

Expert Judgement


Expert Judgement is a technique, in which judgement is provided for process development, based on available specifications, expertise in product development and is valid for processes of the project management.

 The environment considers the education, the knowledge, the skills and experience of the work force involved for project operations.


The judges  team may consist of specialists, journalists who provide judgement for all knowledge areas, based on organizational strategy, project requirement, best practices of the related projects, etcetera for management fields, such as analysis of data and information, outputs, and best management practices of business industry and technical knowledge.

Data Analysis

Data collection and analysis provides  information for knowledge and actions, and is done for all types of data such as for costing, quality, and variances etcetera, for decision making.
    Also the type of analysis may  includes the existing project documents ( both during planning and generated during execution stage).  The document selected depends on the type of the processes involved.


They refer to the outcome of the project and establishes that products, service or results are to the satisfaction of customer (As agreed for business) and as such the project deliverables must be acceptable to the customer. Acceptance of deliverables is a requirement for project closure.

Issue Logs

Problems are continuously faced during project life cycle and if solutions are not provided, these becomes issues to be taken up at project at higher level for solutions. The issues are due to gaps in planning or project operations not sincerely taken up or may be due to unknown risks and may include health, safety, security, environment and corporate social responsibility issues.

Project Document Updates

Updates are provided to all formerly control documents throughout the life cycle of the project. The updates to the documents are the changes and as such these should be the part of the change log. These documents include


All generated documents during project life cycle

Joint Inspections

Testing records


Project history

Operation and Maintenance Manuals

As executed drawings

Quality and HSSE manuals

Contract task performance list

Benefits transferred in stages of the project

Construction Manual

Corporate social responsibility performance report

Requirement Documents

The Requirement documentation is a documentation of all the business requirements, starting from high level in business management to low level in project management. It is part of scope management. The requirements may be categorized. The fulfilling of requirements adds to business value and as such all the requirements from start to end in the project life cycle are tracked with requirement traceability matrix

Activity List

Activity list is the list of activities required to be taken up from project activities. Each activity is defined with work description so that it is understood by the project team and the constructor.

The milestones are tools in project management that mark points on the project timeline, that depicts required agreed outputs. These points are to be achieved in project as per the timeline. And if not, the actions are taken in project execution process for stressing that these millstones remain as scheduled.

Basis of Estimation

Time duration of the project is an important aspect, and it needs to be maintained to avoid time overrun and then the cost overrun. The time duration derivations must be based on tested procedures and based on time durations estimation. The document may include


Estimation details
Assumptions if any
Constraint considered
Risk associated with duration estimation

The basis of estimation must inform the confidence level of estimation and the range of variation of duration.

Project Business Documentation

The documents include the project business case and the project benefit management plan. Project Manager must have the thorough study of the documents to align the project development with business.

Quality Control Measurements
Project Quality is assured in quality management document with formats approved for measuring the control quality actions.
Any variation in excess to specified variances must be discussed and new formats be got approved if required.

Project Communications
It is most important project management part and is taken up with verbal and nonverbal means. The purpose is to appraise the stakeholders about the progress of the project milestones, deliverables, cost and time overrun etcetera important for assessment at the high level, and at the low level, that is within the project, the communications necessary for all project process execution,

Risk Register

Risk register it is a key planning tool for risk management plans. The risk assessment is based on probability and it may be true or false. Utmost care is needed to monitor the identified risk timely. The risks are documented in Register along with their attributes. Format of register may contain details as
Risk priority
Risk category
Risk Trigger
Response strategy
Risk owners
Risk period and response date

Agreement is a negotiated and usually legally enforceable understanding between two or more parties. The standard documents are available for agreements which can be customized for desired use. (A contract is a specific type of agreement that, by its terms and elements, is legally binding and enforceable in a court of law.) FIDIC and world bank contract document guidelines may be adopted 

Procurement documentation
These documentations includes relevant document of pre-tender stage, tender finalization stage and contract administration period. Procurement document closure is necessary before the project closure. Documents in litigation process may be an exception.



Project Closeout begins with a Post-Implementation Review (PIR). The PIR is done after getting feedback from the

Project Team



All-important key stakeholders

Other stakeholders


The feedback taken on the desired project scope / requirements is evaluated and discussed in meetings.

The outcome of the meetings is


Finding the good practices

Identify the Lessons learnt

Deposited them in repository for future use


Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.


Please refer to format for  Project Completion Report Blog on TechConsults. (


Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Fitness

TechConsults         Fitness     SK  19         Jan 01, 2019  SK Saxena  PMP                    

At FitWell - a fitness and wellness center

Enjoy Fitness-Time

Excellence can be achieved at all workplaces only by keeping oneself fit. That is why fitness is important.

We are bound to do work in this world and everybody remain involved in the workplace operations. The workplace operations include:

Your office


Sales and Marketing

All types of business

Tours and Travelling

Games and sports

Construction jobs

Home work


Social works

Works related to Security and safety

The workplaces from where you earn have a typical daily routine and your body gets tuned to perform the required actions. But if you are taking fitness exercises daily then you can do any work, because your body is tuned to do any things. Remember doing the house related jobs without any help is a fitness exercise.

The Physical Fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.          Wikipedia    

Imagine a cricket batsman facing the bodyline or bouncer bowling, on unpredictable pitch with a speed of 132- 150 km/ hr., and the batsman driving the ball to boundary line. All happens very quickly. It is of sensing the incoming ball and managing your body in a position to balance yourself and send the ball to boundary. This action shows your reflex actions, body stretch ability, body flexibility, strength and stamina required for complete action. Mere playing cricket for long duration is not desirable. It is the fitness exercises that make you successful and you fin find yourself different than others. That is what fitness provide.

Fitness means different to different person, but it refers to one’s optimal health and overall well-being which include emotional health also.

Distinguished features of fitness exercises.

Muscular Strength, Balance, Flexibility, Muscular Endurance, Power, Reaction, Time, Body, Composition,  
Cardiovascular Endurance, Agility, Coordination, Speed


The Detailed Features

Muscular Strength

It is defined as the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate during a single bout of exercise-Pushups, Weightlifting and others.


It also refers to the mobility of your muscles, which allows for more movement around the joints. Flexibility helps in performance of activities without the risk accidents. – Stretching exercises and yoga.

Balancebalance is the ability to stay in control of body movement.
The body can maintain its center of gravity while doing different type of job on plain surface or at gradient. – Standing on one foot, Heel-to-Toe walk, and other lower-body exercises.

Muscular Endurance

Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to repeatedly exert force against resistance. Keep the heart, lungs, and the entire circulatory system healthy. -Jogging, Dancing, Swimming, , Climbing, Cycling and others.

Power –  the ability to generate as much force as fast as possible
Reaction Time – is the amount of time it takes to respond to a stimulus.
Body Composition – describe the percentages of fatbonewater and muscle 

in human bodies
Cardiovascular Endurance – is the ability to exercise without becoming tired
Agility – is the ability to be quick and graceful.
Coordination – is the ability to move two or more body parts under control, smoothly and efficiently
Speedthe ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly to grab or throw

The World Health Organization recommends that adults 18-65 years old get “30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity 5 days per week” or “20 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity 3 days per week”


Benefits of Regular Physical Activity

Exercise to feel better and have more energy. Also, to have a longer life. Everyone is benefitted from exercise, regardless of age, sex or physical ability.

Exercise affects the circulatory system, respiratory system and the muscles.

Exercise is a physical activity and burns calories. (Intensity of activity is proportional to more calories burn and calorie burn is proportional to reduction in weight). Exercises strengthen heart and lung functions thereby improves total health.

 Exercise create resistance to diseases and help fight high blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases and many more like diabetes, depression, anxiety, cancer, arthritis etcetera.

Exercise improves wellness index, boost energy and provide a feeling of happiness and relaxation, by lesioning the anxiousness and building confidence and self-esteem.

Exercise promotes better sleep and enhamces the quality of next day operations.


Our Endeavor at FITWELL – Our fitness and wellness center

Dr  Ruchi

A founder of the organization, Ruchi is a certified fitness trainer from American Council on Exercise and certified CKT level -1. She is NESTA certified life style and weight management coach.

Her expertise includes, weight and stress management, core strength and conditioning, functional exercises, Myo facial release and Balance training. She has authored 

various health related articles in different newspaper and magazines and continue to generate awareness in the society regarding the importance of following a healthy lifest

Education experience and environment plays an important part in the success achievement. Everybody has it but at FitWell, we further enhances environment by providing Fitness and wellness classes in your neighborhood.

The kind of individual that all teams need is humble, hungry, and smart: With the help of fitness and wellness, these attributes are further enhanced at FitWell- the fitness and Wellness center in Noida India.

Get In Contact With Us

FITWELL – a fitness and wellness center   A  687, Sector 15 NOIDA 201301, INDIA

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Environment

"We Love to Manage Environment at Construction Projects - TechConsults

TechConsults efforts shall be for enhancing construction project management with the use of wisdom , knowledge and good practices tools and techniques , and by interaction in our BLOG section , supported by HSSE and TQM

SK Saxena PMP BE, MBA, FIE (India)

Environment management at Construction Projects HSSE 3 SK 18


Environment Impact Assessment

Types of pollutants


pH diagram

Causes of pollutants

Environment Management Plans

Environment Management

Waste Generation Sources and Effluent Treatment

Prevention Measures to Check Water Pollution

Actions Required

Environment Indicators

Inspections Required

Construction Site Impacts on Environment

High Level Involvement

Weather Stations


Environment is the sum of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces, which provide conditions for development and growth, as well as of danger and damages.


Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor are responsible for maintaining the sustainability of life and natural forces. These are:


Ambient temperature,

Sunlight, and 

pH of the water and soil

Availability of food for life

All the above factors, if disturbed and the balance in required conditions is not met, then the whole life process and the nature gets affected. All actions being done in development process throughout the world affects the land, the air and the water along with other environment factors mentioned above, and thereby affects the total life. There is need of sustainable development to counter such imbalances.

 Environment engineering principles are applied in all construction and development works and utmost care is taken to control degradation of land, air and water.

 Environmental engineering is the branch of engineering that uses the principles of science, technology and engineering, throughout the globe, for protection of life and nature from adverse impact on environmental factors. Environmental engineering system provide control measures for:

 Energy Preservation,

Waste Management 

Water Borne Diseases

Enforcement Measures

Water Management

Soil Management

Air Quality Management

Acid Rains

Global Warming

Ozone Layer

And many others

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Mitigation

World is changing all the times with the development and advancement in technology. This changes the existing environment conditions which may not be desirable. Therefore, in any project for development, it is exercised how the development affects the environment and what shall be the mitigation measures for adverse impact. The EIA done, provides a foresight to Construction Agency and the stakeholders, to implement necessary controls and mitigation measures.


The development-action output is damaging to existing land, water and air, and their users (Humans and non-Humans) and as such, if not managed properly is harmful for sustainable development.

 The assessment of requirements, the planning, the execution, the Monitoring & Control, the Feedback and Modifications must be judiciously done for development of HSSE Management System as suggested in TechConsult’s HSSE 1   SK 16     and should be earnestly implemented for a cost-effective project output

Types of Pollutants

There are two types of water pollutants from visibility point of view.
Which we can see (sediments, bed silt, suspended silt) and which we cannot see (dissolved solids, liquids and gases)


Every work site creates pollution such as from:

Excavation in soil or rock – sediments

Chemicals used in construction such as oils and Greece.

Effluent from workshops, blasting and other construction operations.


These pollutants reduce

Water clarity disturbs source of food and habitat inside the water and affects the life inside.

They carry Nitrogen and Phosphorus nutrients which helps in algal growth.

Reduces aesthetic value of flowing and non-flowing water.

Affects the quality of water for drinking and industry use.

Suspended silt makes the water turbid which increases virus and bacteria and reduced oxygen.

Non-visual pollutants (such as acids, lime, gypsum) can be dissolved in water or may remain in suspension, may settle on the bed and may go deep into the water level to meet the ground water and pollute the underground reservoir.

As such the after effects of the visual and non-visual pollutants are harmful to human in non-human. The contaminated water becomes unsuitable for drinking and construction purposes.


The water uses for domestic use specially for drinking may have adverse effect on the human life, if the quality of water is not good. The pH scale provides a general idea for quality of water for primary understanding. Also, readily available digital equipment proved instant quality status.


pH (potential of Hydrogen)

It is a measure of alkalinity or acidity of water at a given temperature.


Type of Solution




Suitable range for surface water is 6.6 to 8’5


Suitable range for drinking water is 6.0 to 8.5



pH<6.5-water is acidic, sour in taste, water may contain Fe, Mn, Ca, Pb, Zn and is not fit for washing clothes

Hydrogen ion is more active



pH of pure distilled water

Hydrogen and oxygen ion are equally active.

Basic or Alkaline


pH > 8.5 is hard water

OH, ion is more active

Causes of pollution.

Agricultural management require pesticide and fertilizer to get the crop output in right way and in required quantity. All pesticides and fertilizers are not used and remain in top soil. Fecal matter of animals and humans also remains in the top soil. These pollutants are washed away with rain water and travel through drains and streams to rivers. Also, sewage is a major pollutant contributor. The problem is more serious when the streams and rivers are not in stage. That is in the dry season.

Industrial waste

The type of waste depends upon the type of industry in which different type of chemicals are released during the manufacturing / processing period and the effluents from these industries find their way ultimately to rivers or the ground water.

Infrastructure development waste

The waste produced in construction projects from rural development to urban development to development in oil gas and energy sectors, contributes to pollutants, that affects the environment (land, air, water) and have direct impact on construction work force.

 Medical Waste

It is waste created at clinics and hospitals at construction project sites. The quantity may be less and considering this, it becomes the part of normal waste. This practice is not desirable. Special category must be designated for this water disposal management in consultation with state medical units.


If it can’t be reduced, reused, repaired, rebuilt, refurbished, refinished, resold, recycled, or composted, then it should be restricted, designed or removed from production.”
– Pete Seeger, Folk Singer & Social Activist

Environment Management Plans

Pollution Control

Restoration and Land Scape

Erosion and Sediment Control

Waste Management

Waste Water Management

Air Quality Management

Land Degradation Management

Traffic Management

Biodiversity Management

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Healthy, Safety Management Plan

Muck Management Plan


Environmental Management:

Water resources management

Continuous monitoring of the water resources utilization and quality is done. Daily logging / recording of borehole and surface water values at the abstraction points, and sprinkling records monitoring are also done and records. On the other hand, discharged water quality monitoring is done once in every month

Water Quality Monitoring

 Water related diseases


Diarrhea, Dysentery, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis, Guinea worms, Eye diseases, Skin diseases,


Summary of Water Quality indicators




Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation emitters


Bacteria, Algae


Color, Odor. Organic floating matter


Temperature, Turbidity, Dissolved solids, color, salinity, suspended solids, dissolved solids


·        pH DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Nutrients (including N & P), organic and inorganic compounds, COD


Waste generation source, and processes involved in effluent treatment

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects, frequently, and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled, and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

Waste generation source, and processes involved in effluent treatment

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects, frequently, and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled, and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

The Action of poor quality of water on Construction outputs

(please refer to TechConsults blog post

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction——— (part 1)  )


After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

Organic matter present in water during its bio degradation process consumes oxygen, which reduces BOD of water. Low oxygen availability is harmful for aquatic life.

The organic matter from sewage and industrial effluents, provide nutrients to water bodies and drains. This increases plant life, decreases oxygen, and as such affects aquatic life.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Also, in agricultural use of water, such dissolved solids, deposit inside the top soil after evaporation. These solids damage the fertility of the soil. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.


Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

Water sprinkling

The project construction works are open to traffic used for construction and for the movement of machines such as the earth moving machines. The movement of the traffic creates dust nuisance thereby polluting the air and is a major source of health hazard. As such continuous sprinkling of dust creating areas should be done.

Waste Management

 Waste of oils and lubricants should not be allowed to drain out in earth or streams

The waste from toilets should go to sewage treatment plant and should be disposed only after the disposal criteria is followed.

The food waste must be sorted out in types of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes

Biodegradable waste can be treated by covering it with earth and watering. This may be done in layers. Earth worm use it and convert it into good fertilizers which may be used for agriculture.

Non-biodegradable waste specially of plastics should be collected, shredded for recycling.

The waste disposal site should be kept covered, with proper drainage all around. This is the place where the waste is primarily dumped first before sorting.

Muck Management:

Excavation is a voluminous activity at most of the construction projects and is taken out from over the ground and under the ground.

In both cases the excavated earth / rock should me managed properly by maintaining a muck management plan and controlling the muck disposal operations.


Following are some of the important points to be considered.

Assess the Quantity of muck disposal.

Mark the disposal sites on the map and get its approval.

Construct and maintain haul roads from excavation to disposal site.

Water the haul roads to avoid dust control.

Spread muck in layers in the desired area within the height limits.

The rock muck is used at crushing and processing plants to get different size aggregates for construction needs. This operation needs watering of the aggregates for washing and avoiding dust nuisance. Sedimentation tanks must be used for treatment of this muddy water. And only thereafter clear water must be disposed to streams, water bodies or river.

Dust creating plants must have:

Dust catchers and removers. Such collected dust laden water must be disposed through settling tanks.

Greenery in the area must be developed.

Provide water sprinkling system in the plants

Provide metaled roads in the area

Wind breakers should be provided.

Equipment and vehicles used must follow latest technology norms

Temperature of the effluents must not be higher by 5 degree centigrade with respect to receiving body temperature.


Biodiversity Monitoring:

In far off project areas near protected forests there may be requirements of reporting details about the following:

Status of water bodies including their number, spread, and effect of project construction on them (how biodiversity gets affected).

Status of wild animals on the project site (may include their attacks on project workforce) and effect of project on the wild life (How project activities have affected their spread in the area and how many encounters done with animals and with what results)

How project construction has affected the waters of stream, waterbodies, and river with respect to water quality and life in and around such water sites. (the quality data must be monitored with a baseline data prepared for area affected by the project.)

The above data must be maintained during the project period at intervals required for proper monitoring and control

Actions Required  

The effluents from the surface treatment plants, construction sites, industries need to be treated with best available technology and tested with digital instruments. Air quality monitoring must be done weekly or as required in underground works depending on the work operations. (Real time monitoring mechanisms are better)

Noise level monitoring is done weekly or on the scale of operations

Sedimentation tanks cleaning and sediment disposal

Measuring of effluent discharge into the river

Water, soil and effluent sampling and testing

The technological upgradation must be taken on priority.

All actions must be based on quality plans and assurance measures, predetermined to the satisfaction of standard requirement.

The Quality Control feedback, and the modifications on the feedback, if required must be done immediately.

Standard laboratories with latest equipment and technology must help in testing the quality of effluents.

The receiving bodies quantity capacity and quality capacities must be ascertained before allowing disposal into them.

The simplified technology use’ properly standardize must be enforced by awareness creation and mandatory laws.

The discharges from tannery, textile, paper, plastics, petrochemical and food processing mills, and other pollutants creating units must be checked for COD and BOD, before and after effluent treatment.

The construction project road stabilization and sediment control measures must be taken timely.

 Please refer to Blog Q2  SK 10 on Water Quality for consumption & Construction.

 Environmental Indicators:

Environmental indicators are simple measures that tell us

What is happening in the environment? These are:

Substances Recycled 

Water Abstraction Records

Waste Disposal

Muck Managed

Wild Life Displaced

Water Quantity Sprinkled

Wild Life Added

Air quality monitoring at different workplace


Water quality data with respect to baseline

 Number of Wild life encounters

Number of animal species encountered

Total amount of waste generated (kg)

Amount of biodegradable waste (kg)

Amount of Inorganic waste collected (kg)

Amount of waste recycled (kg)

Number of incidents observed/ reported

Total mileage covered by vehicle fleet

Total volume of water used by project

Amount of aggregates collected after crushing of rock

Total quantity of muck managed

And more as per project needs

List of Inspections to be taken up at construction projects (may be customized to project need)

Muck management Inspection

Sampling at site -all categories

Stakeholder engagement

Legal enforcement follows up

Planned action follow up

Processing plant inspection         

Noise and air quality assessment

Traffic volume and speed records

Sedimentation tank inspection

Haul road management Inspection

Waste awareness promotion

Wild encounter recording

Daily water abstraction records

Oil slippage monitoring

 Investigating and tracing for Suspected Wild animal, if available in project area

 Basting Vibration Monitoring

Nose monitoring inside the tunnels

Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

 Construction site water pollution control mechanisms:

Sediment control in effluents-This is done by draining the sediment laden site area water into sedimentation tanks of designed capaciti

Water should be allowed to drain out only after sedimentation has taken place. Important locations such as tunnel portals and aggregate processing plants and batching plants etcetera are some of the locations where sedimentation tanks are to be provided.

It is necessary to manage construction activities as per specifications, and strict monitoring and controls are to be provide.

Take all necessary steps for pollution control of air water and land areas associated with construction project.

Follow up of environment control / management Act.

Biodiversity maintenance norms and construction project specifications, policy and procedures decided along with necessary control measure must be followed in totality.

Mange the storm water drainage, project roads management, by controlling the inflow of pollutants in drains and sprinkling roads with water at desired interval.


Follow the machine and equipment use procedures.

Implement the system for optimum and required use of the equipment to check pollutants generation.

Necessary test and control measures should be taken by site construction units, supervision units and third-party checks.

Maintain proper documentation, for operating procedures of machine and equipment, used in construction works. Audits and Inspection of the work should be done as per standard requirements.

Administration of contract as per contact document is necessary, along with other support requirements of contract provisions.

Awareness creation should be given priority. A sincere effort in awareness creation, and it follow up to requirement, makes a big difference.

On site instructions during pre-construction stage, during construction stage and post construction stage should be displayed for every activity related to pollution control.

Quality control team should provide necessary feedback and issue Notices for Non conformance. There should be regular testing, monitoring, reporting, and discussions, on control measures.

 The most important steps taken  at the higher levels are:

The clearly and coordinate based site map of construction project, that fulfill the requirements, should be handed over to the construction agency (CA).

The CA must keep the project area fenced with gates, for safety and security. The activities areas inside the occupied areas should be marked and the maps should be revised periodically based on the pace of development inside the area.

All the stakeholders should participate in providing support to mandatory control measure

 Construction of check dams on natural drains and streams, help in creating low velocity of water, which provides more settling time to particles and checks flow of sediments.

Check dams provide more time to store water and, the water percolates to recharge the ground water.

Check dams can increase the ground water table in river basins.

City sewage must be treated in sewage treatment plants and only treated effluents be allowed to join the river.



Coliform exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control of effluents.



Weather Monitoring

Weather monitoring station is a requirement at the project areas to assess the changes during and after construction of projects. Also, this data helps construction agencies and organizations to plan the required activities as they get a clear status of the environment. The data also helps to resolve construction related issues raised by the Construction Agencies during project operations. The data may be monitored in the below mentioned format:


Weather Monitoring format




Humidity (%)













Following instruments are used in weather station to record data for different parameters. Generally, five to eight parameters may be recorded but essential ones are


 Thermometer for measuring air and sea surface temperature

 Barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure

 Hygrometer for measuring humidity

 Anemometer for measuring wind speed

 Pyranometer for measuring solar radiation

 Rain gauge for measuring liquid precipitation

Automatic data recording and transmitting weather stations with real time data transmission are best for construction sites and may be installed near the environment laboratory setup.

 What has been said above is valid for all type of construction projects, specially the far of from urban areas and in remote areas.

Projects are also taken in urban areas for development and modernization and are different in environment management due to complexity of works and the threats to the dense inhabitations. Special attention must be paid to the land, water and air quality management. The air quality index monitoring for particulate matters may affect the health of the inhabitants to a great extent.

Following links may be explored for more information, and may explore

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Health Management at Construction Projects

Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects


“World environment day 2018

Don’t pollute Water,
Don’t Pollute Air,
Don’t Pollute Environment,
And Don’t Pollute yourself
Celebrate the world Environment Day 2018!”