Earned Value Management – S Curve

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

TechConsults

Earned Value Management - S Curve

Project Management- SK 22

 

S-Curve and project Management

S Curve is used for planning, monitoring, controlling, analyzing, and forecasting project’s status, progress, & performance over time and can be used to find the historical trends in project development

A project when planned, needs money for its execution, along with the requirement for other parameters (Man, Material, Money, Methods, Motivation, Management Etcetera). The project activities / tasks are sequenced as per requirements on time line of the project. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks the activities / tasks into small components for different units to work on them, and as such the cost aspects of the works are ascertained (determined in scientific manner / observations).

 

With the help of WBS and the schedule it is ascertained how much money is required periodically. Mostly in all the project the pace of work starts slowly in the starting phase of the project. After that the speed of execution of project increases and this stage continues for most of the project work to get completed. In the closing stage of the project the pace of work slows down, and the project gets completed after some time.

The requirement of fund is therefore analogous to the pace of work.Let us consider the project period of 12 months. The money required as described above is tabulated as monthly requirement or fund flow requirement or the planned requirement of project work.

The table below shows the monthly and cumulative fund flow requirement.

Months

Monthly Expenses

Cumulative Expenses

January

70

0

February

200

270

March

400

600

April

800

1400

May

1600

3000

June

2000

5000

July

3000

8000

August

4500

12500

September

2000

14500

October

1000

15500

November

500

16000

December

300

16300

January

0

16300

 

The graph between the cumulative fund flow and project time line is given below. The curve generated as such is a Sigmoidal Curve (Mathematically) and has a shape resembling the letter ‘S’. Hence is called S-Curve. Its use is also in business and other operations along with life sciences. The curve shown below is a S–Curve

S-curve is an important management tool in project management. This represents project fund flow and may be revised during project period based on approved changes. S- curve is based on planned expenses. Actual expenses (AC) are plotted along with earned values (EV) on time scale. The graphical analysis of the plotted curve data gives three important data at particular time as follows:

PV= the planned value (S-Curve)

Ac= the actual money spent

EV= the value of work done.

The curves of AC, PV, EV may further be analyzed to get the following data:

Schedule Variance (SV)

Cost Variance (CV)

Budget at Completion (BAC)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

To Complete performance Index (TCPI)

General-Blog posts from Tec Consults shall be based on the topics given in the ‘JOIN US’ page, but not limited to available list of topics on the http://techconsults.in. Viewers are now free to join TecConsults and can contact sksaxena@techconsults.in and  info@techconsults.in  for their suggestions for managing the main and sub topics.                                                SK Saxena                                                              

TechConsults – BLOG POST DETAILS
S No.
POST
Catagory
WEB LINK
REFE.
Date
1
General – Workplace Enviroment
 
EI 1
https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/
SK 1
Aug 3, 2018
2
Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2
EI 2
https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-1-2/
 
SK 2
Aug 12, 2018
3
Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2
 
EI 3
https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/
 
SK 3
Aug 17, 2018
4
Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence
PM 1
https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/
 
SK 4
Aug 30, 2018
5
Project Management Framework Essentials – 1
PM 2
https://techconsults.in/project-management-framework-essentials-1/
SK 5
Sep 4, 2018
6
Project Management Framework Essentials 2
 
PM 3
https://techconsults.in/project-management-framework-essentials-2/
 
 SK 6
Sep 12, 2018
7
TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility
PM 4
https://techconsults.in/techconsults-professional-and-social-responsibility/
SK 7
Sept, 18, 2018
8
Management Skills to Manage Unlawful Actions
PM 5
https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/
SK 8
Sep. 19, 2018
9
Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2
Q 1
https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-2/
SK 9
Oct 4, 2018
10
Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)
Q 2
https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-1/
 SK 10
Oct 12, 2018
11
Project Manager
 
PM 6
https://techconsults.in/project-manager/
 
SK 11
Oct 18, 2018
12
Organizations
PM 7
https://techconsults.in/organisations/
SK 12
Oct 15, 2018
13
The Role of Project Manager
PM 8
https://techconsults.in/the-role-of-project-manager/
 
SK 13
Oct 24, 2108
14
Project Organizations
 
PM 9
https://techconsults.in/project-organizations/
 
SK 114
Nov 10, 2018
15
Project Completion Report Format
 
PM 10
https://techconsults.in/project-completion-report-format/
 
SK 15
Nov 28, 2108
16
Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects
 
HSSE
https://techconsults.in/health-safety-security-environment-at-construction-projects/
SK !6
Dec 13, 2018
17
Health Management at Construction Projects
 
HSSE 2
https://techconsults.in/health-management-at-construction-projects/
SK  17
Dec 15, 2018
18
TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects
 
HSSE 3

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

SK 18
Dec. 27, 2018
19
Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness
 
Fitness

Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

SK 19
Jan 1, 2019
20
Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.
 
Fitness

Today’s Fit Children, Tomorrow’s Healthy Adults.

RS 20
Jan 11, 2019
21
Project Closure Report
 
PM

Project Closure Report

SK 21
Feb 13, 2019

Project Closure Report

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Project Closure Report.

SK Saxena PMP      

Project Closing


Any project as per its definition is a temporary endeavor and it must be closed for further operations. The project closure signifies the end of project and starting of operation theoretically, but in actual practice the operations team starts taking over the project before its completion, and some cosmetic construction works, or the left-over works continue even after start of operations.

These operations and works are of non-interfering nature and overlapping most of the time. But there must be a dead line for overlapping period in between the two and it is mentioned in the project closure report, if required.

Project Closure is an important part of project management processes but is overlooked by the project team as it has no home or the lack of interest of management, particularly if business expansion is not required especially in small business operations and small organizations. Or the organization is in hurry to take new ventures or the project is not successful to the desired extent. It happens if the objective of the project, gets linked to project deliverable only in reference to cost and time overrun.

Project closing is the part of project management process group and it should be given the same importance as other process groups.

Project if not closed:

1-Reduces the credibility and responsibility of the project team

2-Organisations may not have guidance for its business expansion

3-Related projects may have risks by not sharing the Project Closure report

 There are two process of project closure: The Procurement Closure and the Administrative Closure.

 

PMBBOK GUIDE ON PROJECT CLOSING

According to A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), “The Project Closing Process Group consists of those processes performed to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations. This process group, when completed, verifies that the defined processes are completed within all of the Process Groups to close the project of phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes that the project or project phase is complete”

Some tips for closing project

Project Management consists of managing all process groups of all knowledge areas. All knowledge areas are planned initially and incorporate subsequent amendments in them, if amended during execution. In closing operation, it is to be ensured that project is complete as planned, knowledge area wise.

Project need closure, be it successful or not successful to the desired objective or without achievement of objective. In all these positions it is necessary to know at closing stage the  status of project with respect to baseline.

A closure of the project is a formal orderly end of the project activities. The contents of the closure report are used in taking up the next project or benchmarking the existing project or for providing solution to the ongoing projects. Once the project is closed the formal acceptance is taken from the stakeholders

 

Closure may be of the phase of project or project.

Closing exercise is done at predetermined time or at the end of processes or project.

 

Project closure requirements include

Project Audits

Evaluations

Deliverables status

Acceptance status

Closing of contracts

Resources reassignment details

Transfer of Knowledge to operation team

 

The processes require (as for all processes) the inputs, the tools and techniques, and the outputs, and these depends on the nature and type of the project,  as project is unique.

The process guidelines are addressed in PMBOK Guide and may be adopted and customized as per need. The excerpts from the book are given below:

Inputs

Project Charter

Project management Plan (all Knowledge Area Plans such as Cost, Time, Quality. Communication. Risk, Procurement and others)

Project Documents

Assumption Log

Basis of Estimates

Change Log

Issue Log

Lessons Learnt

Miles Stone List

Project Communication

Quality Control Measurements

Quality Report

Requirements Documentation

Risk Register

Risk Report

Accepted Deliverables

Business Documents

Business Case

Benefit Management Plan

Agreements

Procurement Documents

Organization Process Assets

Tools and techniques

Expert Judgement

Data Analysis

Document Analysis

Regression Analysis

Trend Analysis

Variance Analysis

Meetings

Outputs

Project Document Updates

Lessons Learned Register

Final Project (Product, Service. Results, Transition Knowledge)

Final Reports

Organization Processes Assets Report

 

 During the process of project execution, the project documents are maintained and updated as the ongoing works or activities are completed. This is necessary as later it may not be possible to recoup the data and information (the project team may not have a home during completion stage of the project). At the time of closure, the contents of these documents are finalized.

 The lesson learnt during the project execution are also finalized and it becomes an important document of project closure process. The lesson learned contents may include scope management, change controls, issues and their resolutions, risks and other knowledge area controls specifying the important steps taken which were not envisaged during the planning stage.

TRANSITION

A project after the closure, is transferred to operations and maintenance team of the customer or organization itself. An overlap in the project and operation team on timeline is desirable, as it facilitates the smooth transition by better understanding the project deliverables and operation requirement.

FINAL REPORT

It describes the business case outcomes, the charter envisaged status, with variations for scope management, cost, time, resources, quality objectives and other Knowledge Area important variations, issues and resolution along with status of Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Corporate Social Responsibility.

 

Some important terms defined in brief

 

Assumption Log

The assumption logs are of two types:  high level and low-level assumptions.
Assumptions are anything / parameter in project management / business management, which are not known with definiteness, but these are accepted as true or certain to carry forward planning of knowledge area activities.

 

These assumptions are verified during project life cycle and as such a log is maintained, so that assumptions are not missed from verification for final acceptance. In business case, the assumptions are considered as high level and in project life cycle are considered as low level.

 When going for planning knowledge areas, for so many actions, parameters are assumed for planning in first stage and later when the assumption is not found correct, it is rectified to the desired extent during the project life cycle, be it in business case or project definition.

Expert Judgement

 

Expert Judgement is a technique, in which judgement is provided for process development, based on available specifications, expertise in product development and is valid for processes of the project management.

 The environment considers the education, the knowledge, the skills and experience of the work force involved for project operations.

 

The judges  team may consist of specialists, journalists who provide judgement for all knowledge areas, based on organizational strategy, project requirement, best practices of the related projects, etcetera for management fields, such as analysis of data and information, outputs, and best management practices of business industry and technical knowledge.

Data Analysis

Data collection and analysis provides  information for knowledge and actions, and is done for all types of data such as for costing, quality, and variances etcetera, for decision making.
    Also the type of analysis may  includes the existing project documents ( both during planning and generated during execution stage).  The document selected depends on the type of the processes involved.

Deliverables

They refer to the outcome of the project and establishes that products, service or results are to the satisfaction of customer (As agreed for business) and as such the project deliverables must be acceptable to the customer. Acceptance of deliverables is a requirement for project closure.

Issue Logs

Problems are continuously faced during project life cycle and if solutions are not provided, these becomes issues to be taken up at project at higher level for solutions. The issues are due to gaps in planning or project operations not sincerely taken up or may be due to unknown risks and may include health, safety, security, environment and corporate social responsibility issues.

Project Document Updates

Updates are provided to all formerly control documents throughout the life cycle of the project. The updates to the documents are the changes and as such these should be the part of the change log. These documents include

 

All generated documents during project life cycle

Joint Inspections

Testing records

Reports

Project history

Operation and Maintenance Manuals

As executed drawings

Quality and HSSE manuals

Contract task performance list

Benefits transferred in stages of the project

Construction Manual

Corporate social responsibility performance report

Requirement Documents

The Requirement documentation is a documentation of all the business requirements, starting from high level in business management to low level in project management. It is part of scope management. The requirements may be categorized. The fulfilling of requirements adds to business value and as such all the requirements from start to end in the project life cycle are tracked with requirement traceability matrix

Activity List

Activity list is the list of activities required to be taken up from project activities. Each activity is defined with work description so that it is understood by the project team and the constructor.

Milestones
The milestones are tools in project management that mark points on the project timeline, that depicts required agreed outputs. These points are to be achieved in project as per the timeline. And if not, the actions are taken in project execution process for stressing that these millstones remain as scheduled.


Basis of Estimation

Time duration of the project is an important aspect, and it needs to be maintained to avoid time overrun and then the cost overrun. The time duration derivations must be based on tested procedures and based on time durations estimation. The document may include

 

Estimation details
Assumptions if any
Constraint considered
Risk associated with duration estimation

The basis of estimation must inform the confidence level of estimation and the range of variation of duration.

Project Business Documentation

The documents include the project business case and the project benefit management plan. Project Manager must have the thorough study of the documents to align the project development with business.

Quality Control Measurements
Project Quality is assured in quality management document with formats approved for measuring the control quality actions.
Any variation in excess to specified variances must be discussed and new formats be got approved if required.

Project Communications
It is most important project management part and is taken up with verbal and nonverbal means. The purpose is to appraise the stakeholders about the progress of the project milestones, deliverables, cost and time overrun etcetera important for assessment at the high level, and at the low level, that is within the project, the communications necessary for all project process execution,

Risk Register

Risk register it is a key planning tool for risk management plans. The risk assessment is based on probability and it may be true or false. Utmost care is needed to monitor the identified risk timely. The risks are documented in Register along with their attributes. Format of register may contain details as
Risk priority
Description
Probability
Impacts
Risk category
Risk Trigger
Response strategy
Risk owners
Risk period and response date

Agreement
Agreement is a negotiated and usually legally enforceable understanding between two or more parties. The standard documents are available for agreements which can be customized for desired use. (A contract is a specific type of agreement that, by its terms and elements, is legally binding and enforceable in a court of law.) FIDIC and world bank contract document guidelines may be adopted 

Procurement documentation
These documentations includes relevant document of pre-tender stage, tender finalization stage and contract administration period. Procurement document closure is necessary before the project closure. Documents in litigation process may be an exception.

 

 

Project Closeout begins with a Post-Implementation Review (PIR). The PIR is done after getting feedback from the

Project Team

Sponsor

Costumers

All-important key stakeholders

Other stakeholders

 

The feedback taken on the desired project scope / requirements is evaluated and discussed in meetings.

The outcome of the meetings is

 

Finding the good practices

Identify the Lessons learnt

Deposited them in repository for future use

 

Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.

 

Please refer to format for  Project Completion Report Blog on TechConsults. (www.techconsults.in)

 

Fitness – For Workplace and Wellness

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Fitness

TechConsults         Fitness     SK  19         Jan 01, 2019  SK Saxena  PMP                    

At FitWell - a fitness and wellness center

Enjoy Fitness-Time

Excellence can be achieved at all workplaces only by keeping oneself fit. That is why fitness is important.

We are bound to do work in this world and everybody remain involved in the workplace operations. The workplace operations include:

Your office

Schools

Sales and Marketing

All types of business

Tours and Travelling

Games and sports

Construction jobs

Home work

Gardening

Social works

Works related to Security and safety

The workplaces from where you earn have a typical daily routine and your body gets tuned to perform the required actions. But if you are taking fitness exercises daily then you can do any work, because your body is tuned to do any things. Remember doing the house related jobs without any help is a fitness exercise.

The Physical Fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.          Wikipedia    

Imagine a cricket batsman facing the bodyline or bouncer bowling, on unpredictable pitch with a speed of 132- 150 km/ hr., and the batsman driving the ball to boundary line. All happens very quickly. It is of sensing the incoming ball and managing your body in a position to balance yourself and send the ball to boundary. This action shows your reflex actions, body stretch ability, body flexibility, strength and stamina required for complete action. Mere playing cricket for long duration is not desirable. It is the fitness exercises that make you successful and you fin find yourself different than others. That is what fitness provide.

Fitness means different to different person, but it refers to one’s optimal health and overall well-being which include emotional health also.

Distinguished features of fitness exercises.

Muscular Strength, Balance, Flexibility, Muscular Endurance, Power, Reaction, Time, Body, Composition,  
Cardiovascular Endurance, Agility, Coordination, Speed

 

The Detailed Features

Muscular Strength

It is defined as the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate during a single bout of exercise-Pushups, Weightlifting and others.

Flexibility

It also refers to the mobility of your muscles, which allows for more movement around the joints. Flexibility helps in performance of activities without the risk accidents. – Stretching exercises and yoga.

Balancebalance is the ability to stay in control of body movement.
The body can maintain its center of gravity while doing different type of job on plain surface or at gradient. – Standing on one foot, Heel-to-Toe walk, and other lower-body exercises.

Muscular Endurance

Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to repeatedly exert force against resistance. Keep the heart, lungs, and the entire circulatory system healthy. -Jogging, Dancing, Swimming, , Climbing, Cycling and others.

Power –  the ability to generate as much force as fast as possible
Reaction Time – is the amount of time it takes to respond to a stimulus.
Body Composition – describe the percentages of fatbonewater and muscle 

in human bodies
Cardiovascular Endurance – is the ability to exercise without becoming tired
Agility – is the ability to be quick and graceful.
Coordination – is the ability to move two or more body parts under control, smoothly and efficiently
Speedthe ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly to grab or throw

The World Health Organization recommends that adults 18-65 years old get “30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity 5 days per week” or “20 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity 3 days per week”

 

Benefits of Regular Physical Activity

Exercise to feel better and have more energy. Also, to have a longer life. Everyone is benefitted from exercise, regardless of age, sex or physical ability.

Exercise affects the circulatory system, respiratory system and the muscles.

Exercise is a physical activity and burns calories. (Intensity of activity is proportional to more calories burn and calorie burn is proportional to reduction in weight). Exercises strengthen heart and lung functions thereby improves total health.

 Exercise create resistance to diseases and help fight high blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases and many more like diabetes, depression, anxiety, cancer, arthritis etcetera.

Exercise improves wellness index, boost energy and provide a feeling of happiness and relaxation, by lesioning the anxiousness and building confidence and self-esteem.

Exercise promotes better sleep and enhamces the quality of next day operations.

 

https://techconsults.in/ftness/

http://fitwellnoida.com/contact-2/

 

Our Endeavor at FITWELL – Our fitness and wellness center

Dr  Ruchi

A founder of the organization, Ruchi is a certified fitness trainer from American Council on Exercise and certified CKT level -1. She is NESTA certified life style and weight management coach.

Her expertise includes, weight and stress management, core strength and conditioning, functional exercises, Myo facial release and Balance training. She has authored 

various health related articles in different newspaper and magazines and continue to generate awareness in the society regarding the importance of following a healthy lifest

Education experience and environment plays an important part in the success achievement. Everybody has it but at FitWell, we further enhances environment by providing Fitness and wellness classes in your neighborhood.

The kind of individual that all teams need is humble, hungry, and smart: With the help of fitness and wellness, these attributes are further enhanced at FitWell- the fitness and Wellness center in Noida India.

Get In Contact With Us

FITWELL – a fitness and wellness center   A  687, Sector 15 NOIDA 201301, INDIA     

http://.fitwellnoida.com

TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Environment

"We Love to Manage Environment at Construction Projects - TechConsults

TechConsults efforts shall be for enhancing construction project management with the use of wisdom , knowledge and good practices tools and techniques , and by interaction in our BLOG section , supported by HSSE and TQM

SK Saxena PMP BE, MBA, FIE (India)

Environment management at Construction Projects HSSE 3 SK 18

Environment

Environment Impact Assessment

Types of pollutants

pH

pH diagram

Causes of pollutants

Environment Management Plans

Environment Management

Waste Generation Sources and Effluent Treatment

Prevention Measures to Check Water Pollution

Actions Required

Environment Indicators

Inspections Required

Construction Site Impacts on Environment

High Level Involvement

Weather Stations

Environmen

Environment is the sum of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces, which provide conditions for development and growth, as well as of danger and damages.

 

Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor are responsible for maintaining the sustainability of life and natural forces. These are:

 

Ambient temperature,

Sunlight, and 

pH of the water and soil

Availability of food for life

All the above factors, if disturbed and the balance in required conditions is not met, then the whole life process and the nature gets affected. All actions being done in development process throughout the world affects the land, the air and the water along with other environment factors mentioned above, and thereby affects the total life. There is need of sustainable development to counter such imbalances.

 Environment engineering principles are applied in all construction and development works and utmost care is taken to control degradation of land, air and water.

 Environmental engineering is the branch of engineering that uses the principles of science, technology and engineering, throughout the globe, for protection of life and nature from adverse impact on environmental factors. Environmental engineering system provide control measures for:

 Energy Preservation,

Waste Management 

Water Borne Diseases

Enforcement Measures

Water Management

Soil Management

Air Quality Management

Acid Rains

Global Warming

Ozone Layer

And many others

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Mitigation

World is changing all the times with the development and advancement in technology. This changes the existing environment conditions which may not be desirable. Therefore, in any project for development, it is exercised how the development affects the environment and what shall be the mitigation measures for adverse impact. The EIA done, provides a foresight to Construction Agency and the stakeholders, to implement necessary controls and mitigation measures.

 

The development-action output is damaging to existing land, water and air, and their users (Humans and non-Humans) and as such, if not managed properly is harmful for sustainable development.

 The assessment of requirements, the planning, the execution, the Monitoring & Control, the Feedback and Modifications must be judiciously done for development of HSSE Management System as suggested in TechConsult’s HSSE 1   SK 16  https://techconsults.in/health-safety-security-environment-at-construction-projects/     and should be earnestly implemented for a cost-effective project output

Types of Pollutants

There are two types of water pollutants from visibility point of view.
Which we can see (sediments, bed silt, suspended silt) and which we cannot see (dissolved solids, liquids and gases)

 

Every work site creates pollution such as from:

Excavation in soil or rock – sediments

Chemicals used in construction such as oils and Greece.

Effluent from workshops, blasting and other construction operations.

 

These pollutants reduce

Water clarity disturbs source of food and habitat inside the water and affects the life inside.

They carry Nitrogen and Phosphorus nutrients which helps in algal growth.

Reduces aesthetic value of flowing and non-flowing water.

Affects the quality of water for drinking and industry use.


Suspended silt makes the water turbid which increases virus and bacteria and reduced oxygen.

Non-visual pollutants (such as acids, lime, gypsum) can be dissolved in water or may remain in suspension, may settle on the bed and may go deep into the water level to meet the ground water and pollute the underground reservoir.

As such the after effects of the visual and non-visual pollutants are harmful to human in non-human. The contaminated water becomes unsuitable for drinking and construction purposes.

 

The water uses for domestic use specially for drinking may have adverse effect on the human life, if the quality of water is not good. The pH scale provides a general idea for quality of water for primary understanding. Also, readily available digital equipment proved instant quality status.

 

pH (potential of Hydrogen)

It is a measure of alkalinity or acidity of water at a given temperature.

 

Type of Solution

pH

 

 

Suitable range for surface water is 6.6 to 8’5

 

Suitable range for drinking water is 6.0 to 8.5

Acidic

<7

pH<6.5-water is acidic, sour in taste, water may contain Fe, Mn, Ca, Pb, Zn and is not fit for washing clothes

Hydrogen ion is more active

Neutral

7

pH of pure distilled water

Hydrogen and oxygen ion are equally active.

Basic or Alkaline

>7

pH > 8.5 is hard water

OH, ion is more active

Causes of pollution.

Agricultural management require pesticide and fertilizer to get the crop output in right way and in required quantity. All pesticides and fertilizers are not used and remain in top soil. Fecal matter of animals and humans also remains in the top soil. These pollutants are washed away with rain water and travel through drains and streams to rivers. Also, sewage is a major pollutant contributor. The problem is more serious when the streams and rivers are not in stage. That is in the dry season.

Industrial waste

The type of waste depends upon the type of industry in which different type of chemicals are released during the manufacturing / processing period and the effluents from these industries find their way ultimately to rivers or the ground water.

Infrastructure development waste

The waste produced in construction projects from rural development to urban development to development in oil gas and energy sectors, contributes to pollutants, that affects the environment (land, air, water) and have direct impact on construction work force.

 Medical Waste

It is waste created at clinics and hospitals at construction project sites. The quantity may be less and considering this, it becomes the part of normal waste. This practice is not desirable. Special category must be designated for this water disposal management in consultation with state medical units.

 

If it can’t be reduced, reused, repaired, rebuilt, refurbished, refinished, resold, recycled, or composted, then it should be restricted, designed or removed from production.”
– Pete Seeger, Folk Singer & Social Activist

Environment Management Plans

Pollution Control

Restoration and Land Scape

Erosion and Sediment Control

Waste Management

Waste Water Management

Air Quality Management

Land Degradation Management

Traffic Management

Biodiversity Management

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Healthy, Safety Management Plan

Muck Management Plan

 

Environmental Management:

Water resources management

Continuous monitoring of the water resources utilization and quality is done. Daily logging / recording of borehole and surface water values at the abstraction points, and sprinkling records monitoring are also done and records. On the other hand, discharged water quality monitoring is done once in every month

Water Quality Monitoring

 Water related diseases

 

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis, Guinea worms, Eye diseases, Skin diseases,

 

Summary of Water Quality indicators

Indicators

Parameters

Radioactive

Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation emitters

Biological

Bacteria, Algae

Aesthetic

Color, Odor. Organic floating matter

Physical

Temperature, Turbidity, Dissolved solids, color, salinity, suspended solids, dissolved solids

Chemical

·        pH DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Nutrients (including N & P), organic and inorganic compounds, COD

 

Waste generation source, and processes involved in effluent treatment

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects, frequently, and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled, and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

Waste generation source, and processes involved in effluent treatment

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects, frequently, and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled, and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

The Action of poor quality of water on Construction outputs

(please refer to TechConsults blog post

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-2/

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction——— (part 1)

https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-1/  )

 

After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

Organic matter present in water during its bio degradation process consumes oxygen, which reduces BOD of water. Low oxygen availability is harmful for aquatic life.

The organic matter from sewage and industrial effluents, provide nutrients to water bodies and drains. This increases plant life, decreases oxygen, and as such affects aquatic life.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Also, in agricultural use of water, such dissolved solids, deposit inside the top soil after evaporation. These solids damage the fertility of the soil. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.

 

Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

Water sprinkling

The project construction works are open to traffic used for construction and for the movement of machines such as the earth moving machines. The movement of the traffic creates dust nuisance thereby polluting the air and is a major source of health hazard. As such continuous sprinkling of dust creating areas should be done.

Waste Management

 Waste of oils and lubricants should not be allowed to drain out in earth or streams

The waste from toilets should go to sewage treatment plant and should be disposed only after the disposal criteria is followed.

The food waste must be sorted out in types of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes

Biodegradable waste can be treated by covering it with earth and watering. This may be done in layers. Earth worm use it and convert it into good fertilizers which may be used for agriculture.

Non-biodegradable waste specially of plastics should be collected, shredded for recycling.

The waste disposal site should be kept covered, with proper drainage all around. This is the place where the waste is primarily dumped first before sorting.

Muck Management:

Excavation is a voluminous activity at most of the construction projects and is taken out from over the ground and under the ground.

In both cases the excavated earth / rock should me managed properly by maintaining a muck management plan and controlling the muck disposal operations.

 

Following are some of the important points to be considered.

Assess the Quantity of muck disposal.

Mark the disposal sites on the map and get its approval.

Construct and maintain haul roads from excavation to disposal site.

Water the haul roads to avoid dust control.

Spread muck in layers in the desired area within the height limits.

The rock muck is used at crushing and processing plants to get different size aggregates for construction needs. This operation needs watering of the aggregates for washing and avoiding dust nuisance. Sedimentation tanks must be used for treatment of this muddy water. And only thereafter clear water must be disposed to streams, water bodies or river.

Dust creating plants must have:

Dust catchers and removers. Such collected dust laden water must be disposed through settling tanks.

Greenery in the area must be developed.

Provide water sprinkling system in the plants

Provide metaled roads in the area

Wind breakers should be provided.

Equipment and vehicles used must follow latest technology norms

Temperature of the effluents must not be higher by 5 degree centigrade with respect to receiving body temperature.

 

Biodiversity Monitoring:

In far off project areas near protected forests there may be requirements of reporting details about the following:

Status of water bodies including their number, spread, and effect of project construction on them (how biodiversity gets affected).

Status of wild animals on the project site (may include their attacks on project workforce) and effect of project on the wild life (How project activities have affected their spread in the area and how many encounters done with animals and with what results)

How project construction has affected the waters of stream, waterbodies, and river with respect to water quality and life in and around such water sites. (the quality data must be monitored with a baseline data prepared for area affected by the project.)

The above data must be maintained during the project period at intervals required for proper monitoring and control

Actions Required  

The effluents from the surface treatment plants, construction sites, industries need to be treated with best available technology and tested with digital instruments. Air quality monitoring must be done weekly or as required in underground works depending on the work operations. (Real time monitoring mechanisms are better)

Noise level monitoring is done weekly or on the scale of operations

Sedimentation tanks cleaning and sediment disposal

Measuring of effluent discharge into the river

Water, soil and effluent sampling and testing

The technological upgradation must be taken on priority.

All actions must be based on quality plans and assurance measures, predetermined to the satisfaction of standard requirement.

The Quality Control feedback, and the modifications on the feedback, if required must be done immediately.

Standard laboratories with latest equipment and technology must help in testing the quality of effluents.

The receiving bodies quantity capacity and quality capacities must be ascertained before allowing disposal into them.

The simplified technology use’ properly standardize must be enforced by awareness creation and mandatory laws.

The discharges from tannery, textile, paper, plastics, petrochemical and food processing mills, and other pollutants creating units must be checked for COD and BOD, before and after effluent treatment.

The construction project road stabilization and sediment control measures must be taken timely.

 Please refer to Blog Q2  SK 10 on Water Quality for consumption & Construction.

 Environmental Indicators:

Environmental indicators are simple measures that tell us

What is happening in the environment? These are:

Substances Recycled 

Water Abstraction Records

Waste Disposal

Muck Managed

Wild Life Displaced

Water Quantity Sprinkled

Wild Life Added

Air quality monitoring at different workplace

locations

Water quality data with respect to baseline

 Number of Wild life encounters

Number of animal species encountered

Total amount of waste generated (kg)

Amount of biodegradable waste (kg)

Amount of Inorganic waste collected (kg)

Amount of waste recycled (kg)

Number of incidents observed/ reported

Total mileage covered by vehicle fleet

Total volume of water used by project

Amount of aggregates collected after crushing of rock

Total quantity of muck managed

And more as per project needs

List of Inspections to be taken up at construction projects (may be customized to project need)

Muck management Inspection

Sampling at site -all categories

Stakeholder engagement

Legal enforcement follows up

Planned action follow up

Processing plant inspection         

Noise and air quality assessment

Traffic volume and speed records

Sedimentation tank inspection

Haul road management Inspection

Waste awareness promotion

Wild encounter recording

Daily water abstraction records

Oil slippage monitoring

 Investigating and tracing for Suspected Wild animal, if available in project area

 Basting Vibration Monitoring

Nose monitoring inside the tunnels

Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

 Construction site water pollution control mechanisms:

Sediment control in effluents-This is done by draining the sediment laden site area water into sedimentation tanks of designed capaciti

Water should be allowed to drain out only after sedimentation has taken place. Important locations such as tunnel portals and aggregate processing plants and batching plants etcetera are some of the locations where sedimentation tanks are to be provided.

It is necessary to manage construction activities as per specifications, and strict monitoring and controls are to be provide.

Take all necessary steps for pollution control of air water and land areas associated with construction project.

Follow up of environment control / management Act.

Biodiversity maintenance norms and construction project specifications, policy and procedures decided along with necessary control measure must be followed in totality.

Mange the storm water drainage, project roads management, by controlling the inflow of pollutants in drains and sprinkling roads with water at desired interval.

 

Follow the machine and equipment use procedures.

Implement the system for optimum and required use of the equipment to check pollutants generation.

Necessary test and control measures should be taken by site construction units, supervision units and third-party checks.

Maintain proper documentation, for operating procedures of machine and equipment, used in construction works. Audits and Inspection of the work should be done as per standard requirements.

Administration of contract as per contact document is necessary, along with other support requirements of contract provisions.

Awareness creation should be given priority. A sincere effort in awareness creation, and it follow up to requirement, makes a big difference.

On site instructions during pre-construction stage, during construction stage and post construction stage should be displayed for every activity related to pollution control.

Quality control team should provide necessary feedback and issue Notices for Non conformance. There should be regular testing, monitoring, reporting, and discussions, on control measures.

 The most important steps taken  at the higher levels are:

The clearly and coordinate based site map of construction project, that fulfill the requirements, should be handed over to the construction agency (CA).

The CA must keep the project area fenced with gates, for safety and security. The activities areas inside the occupied areas should be marked and the maps should be revised periodically based on the pace of development inside the area.

All the stakeholders should participate in providing support to mandatory control measure

 Construction of check dams on natural drains and streams, help in creating low velocity of water, which provides more settling time to particles and checks flow of sediments.

Check dams provide more time to store water and, the water percolates to recharge the ground water.

Check dams can increase the ground water table in river basins.

City sewage must be treated in sewage treatment plants and only treated effluents be allowed to join the river.

 

 

Coliform exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control of effluents.

 

 

Weather Monitoring

Weather monitoring station is a requirement at the project areas to assess the changes during and after construction of projects. Also, this data helps construction agencies and organizations to plan the required activities as they get a clear status of the environment. The data also helps to resolve construction related issues raised by the Construction Agencies during project operations. The data may be monitored in the below mentioned format:

 

Weather Monitoring format

Date

Rainfall

Temperature

Humidity (%)

Max

Total

Max

Min

Average

Max

Min

Average

         

 

 

 

Following instruments are used in weather station to record data for different parameters. Generally, five to eight parameters may be recorded but essential ones are

 

 Thermometer for measuring air and sea surface temperature

 Barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure

 Hygrometer for measuring humidity

 Anemometer for measuring wind speed

 Pyranometer for measuring solar radiation

 Rain gauge for measuring liquid precipitation

Automatic data recording and transmitting weather stations with real time data transmission are best for construction sites and may be installed near the environment laboratory setup.

 What has been said above is valid for all type of construction projects, specially the far of from urban areas and in remote areas.

Projects are also taken in urban areas for development and modernization and are different in environment management due to complexity of works and the threats to the dense inhabitations. Special attention must be paid to the land, water and air quality management. The air quality index monitoring for particulate matters may affect the health of the inhabitants to a great extent.

Following links may be explored for more information, and may explore https://techconsults.in

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Health Management at Construction Projects

Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

 

“World environment day 2018

Don’t pollute Water,
Don’t Pollute Air,
Don’t Pollute Environment,
And Don’t Pollute yourself
Celebrate the world Environment Day 2018!”

sksaxena@techconsults.in

Health Management at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in health

TechConsults

TechC

Health Management at Construction Projects

SK Saxena PMP BE MBA FIE (India) - HSSE 1 SK 17

Health Management at Construction Projects

HSSE  1 SK  17    Dec 15, 2018

Health 

Health Is a state of complete physical mental and social well being and not only absence of diseases or infirmity.

 

The human right include housing and living conditions (Places with amenities as per standards), healthy working conditions at workplace, and medical care, suffice to attainable physical and mental health standards.

Everyone has the right to health and it must be provided as public good at the construction projects.

 

It is necessary to provide a good Hospital /Clinic at project site supported by first aid and ambulances and other provisions, staff, doctors, nurses for its complete functioning.

All such services must be to the state standards and accountable to sufferings of human beings for immediate medical requirements at the right time.

 

At the construction projects the workforce consists of people of different culture religion caste and as such there should be no discrimination in provision of quality services, availability of goods and resources, support to community, with transparency and accountability.

Maintaining a good Health Management System at site is the requirement of the project and is responsibility of all stakeholder and the workforce

The assessment of requirements, the planning, the execution, the Monitoring & Control, the Feedback and Modifications must be judiciously done for development of Health Management System as suggested in TechConsult’s  Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

SK 16    https://techconsults.in/health-safety-security-environment-at-construction-projects/

and should be earnestly implemented for a cost-effective project output.

 Health of the workforce is affected at construction projects by the following factors:

 Polluted Air

Waterborne diseases

Improper disposal of sewage

Land degradation

Sexually transmitted diseases

Bad quality of food

Site related accidents

After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.

 Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

Coliforms exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

 Pollutant Control

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control of effluents.

Major control parameters are

BODBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in each water sample at certain temperature over a specific time. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per liter of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.

CODIn environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution. It is commonly expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution which in SI units is milligrams per liter (mg/L). A COD test can be used to easily quantify the number of organics in water. The most common application of COD is in quantifying the amount of oxidize able pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater. COD is useful in terms of water quality by providing a metric to determine the effect an effluent will have on the receiving body, much like biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). —-Source Wikipedia

ColiformColiform bacteria are organisms that are present in the environment and in the feces of all warm-blooded animals and humans. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.

pH Value -pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.  The term pH refers to the potential hydrogen/ hydroxyl ion content of a solution.  Solutions ionize into positive and negative ions.  If a solution has more hydrogen (positive) ions than hydroxyl (negative) ions, then it is acidic and has a pH in the range of 0 to 6.9.  Alternatively, if a solution has more hydroxyl (negative) ions than hydrogen (positive) ions then it is alkaline with a pH in the range of 7.1 to 14.  Pure water and deionized water have a balance of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions and is therefore pH neutral (pH 7).

 If the pH of a solution is not within the correct range the plant will not have the ability to absorb some of the essential elements required for proper plant growth.  All plants have a pH range, which will produce healthy growth, and this level will vary from plant to plant, but most plants prefer a slightly acidic growing environment (5.8 to 6.2), although most plants can survive in an environment with pH values between 5.0 and 7.0.

The developed health system should be base don the principals of Equity, Adaptability, Universality, and Transparency with the Participation of all.

Equity being impartial to all genders.  

 

Adaptability – the quality of project administration to adjust to new conditions and flexibility to accept change

 

Universality-The quality of being true or appropriate for all.

 

Transparency – Open in such a way so that others may know what actions are being performed. It helps in trust building in the avoidance of problems and issues.  

 

Participation- All stakeholders to take part and contribute in construction site management, as it finally improves the. procedures involved in the Healthcare.

 

Think over it Good Health and Good Senses are Two of Life’s Greatest blessings-Sy

 

Construction sites have varying environment depending on the scale of operation of the project. Therefore, the health management practices must be design for peak load

Proactive health steps shall create an atmosphere of Wellness and will meet requirements of health definition. 

SOME FORMATS FOR RECORDING ACTIVITIES STATUS:

1 Sample format for Record of Number of Ailments Recorded in Year–———-

Ailment

June

 

May

 

April

March

February

Malaria

 

 

 

 

 

Diarrhea

 

 

 

 

 

Dysentery

 

 

 

 

 

E.N.T 

 

 

 

 

 

AIDS

 

 

 

 

 

STD

 

 

 

 

 

UTI

 

 

 

 

 

Skin disorders

 

 

 

 

 

VD

 

 

 

 

 

Typhoid

 

 

 

 

 

Respiration disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Cardiovascular

 

 

 

 

 

Gastric disease

 

 

 

 

 

Trauma-RTA

 

 

 

 

 

Trauma

 

 

 

 

 

other diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Total Number

 

 

 

 

 

 

  2 Workforce at Site Clinic

Position

Number

Doctor

 

Pathologists

 

Nurse

 

Lab assistants

 

Ward Boys

 

Clerks

 

Ambulance Drivers

 

Scavengers

 

Front office attendants

 

 3 Accommodation facilities at Construction site

CAMP

Description of Accommodation

Number of Rooms

Number residents

Public toilets

Community/ kitchens

REMARK

CAMP A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTALS

 

 

 

 

 

 Construction works are of varying nature depending on the types of project, and therefore attention should be given on the execution of tasks and their aftereffects on the health of workforce.

It is the responsibility of the entire workforce and the organization and local government bodies to jointly participate in implementation, monitoring and control the likely creation of factors against health hazards.

It should also be seen that the inhabitants outside the work area are given a safe guard against the perceived health complications.

The management must have a proactive approach to avoid any kind of aftereffects on health due to project activities.

Following measures must be taken:

Involvement of all workforce from top to bottom in identifying the health hazards, their prevention and support in aftereffect management.

There must be pro action in finding potential health threats an in enforcement of the control measures.

Conscious awareness creation among the workforce about hazard prevention so that injuries, illness, sufferings and deaths may be avoided.

 If health programs are implemented seriously by the organizations, it will reduce costs due to;

Making workplace incident free

Loss of man hours saved

Less cost of new additional work force recruitment

Saving in training and placement costs

Saving extra efforts of organization.

Saving in material involved

 OSHA suggest easy things to start the programs for health care and they refer to following actions:

Health and safety hazard control measure must be given a top priority by entire work force at the work place.

Healthcare actions taken by team individuals becomes effective learning lessons for others

Create a reporting system about health concerns and share with all the important findings.

Train the workers in identification and control of health hazards

Conduct joint site inspections and issue on site instructions for findings and document them for further monitoring in daily, weekly and monthly meetings. Problems’ and issues log should be maintained for getting help from high level offices.

Collect ideas from workforce for checks on the health hazards as they are nearer to work operations. Further this shall be considered as their involvement and they shall be motivated to help the organization in maintaining a critical eye on health hazard identification and controls.

 Risks are every where on life. You walk on hill roads and any time a stone may fall on you. But walking is not stopped. People becomes used to such risks and they are careful. But in new project activities, location and nature of project, the risks should be assessed by the experts and the workforce must be apprised about the precautionary measures to be taken by them to avoid health and safety after effects.

Health Program orientation should involve following factors:

Management leadership involvement

Workforce participation with dedication

Hazard identification and controls, preferably jointly by the project authority, the constructor and the entire work force.

Hazard prevention and controls.

Education and training all workforce and its implementation by the superiors on daily, weekly and monthly basis.

Monitoring the implementation efforts, exercising controls and providing feedback and information for further necessary improvement actions.

Maintaining a good communication system preferably as real time as possible.

Creating awareness about fitness and wellness in workforce.

Proper coordination at all level for implementation, assessment, controls and further necessary directions.

 

Fitness is very important now in this fast-action-packed scenario to avoid accidents at work during travel and at home. It is not the gym exercises and is different.
It keeps you fit to carry out your functions.
A footballer, hockey player, badminton player or cricketer, plays the game part. These players to play the game without disruptions in actions need to be fit and therefore they get regular fitness training which is additional to their game. The put the purpose is to make you understand that developing of EQ as well as to keep yourself fit for actions effectively and efficiently, is the requirement for the success.

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. John F. Kennedy

Get to know the real

Quality Water to Drink

Community participation

Enjoy the Benifits of a very good health

Images: WOCinTechChat, Bike: 1, 2, 3

Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Health Safety Security Environment (HSSE)

“Prevent the worst and Put safety first, because being Safe today will keep you Alive tomorrow”

TOPICS:

HSSE General

Importance of HSSE in Project Construction

HSSE Concerns

HSSE Management

HSSE Concerns at Project

Tasks to Manage HSSE

HSSE Organization

HSSE Manager

On-site HSSE Team

Risk Situations

HSSE Management System

Required Actions

Set Targets

HSSE Checks

Get Fit and be Efficient

Hendricks Accident Triangle

Too often we exaggerate the risk of a hazard and categorize what is merely possible as probable because it is easier to enforce than if we make an honest assessment. Some safety professionals, in the name of “zero-injuries” will heap regulation after regulation on a job until the organization rebels and simply refuses to comply. When it comes to making the workplace safer, the more complex and/or burdensome the solution the far less likely the compliance.

 We must understand that there are limits to the amount of protection we can provide to people and if when exceed the perceived reasonable limits we not only fail to protect in that instance, but we lose credibility and jeopardize compliance with safety protocols that are essential for basic safety. When safety professionals’ risk tolerance is out of alignment with societal norms the safety professional is doomed to a life of frustration. – Phil Ladoke

 

General- Health Safety, security and Environment (HSSE) on Construction projects

 A project is unique in itself; no two projects may be the same. But they work within the same knowledge areas and process groups (may be customized as per requirement of the project)

The Health, Safety, Security and Environment management factors are valid for all the projects. Except a few unknown risks, all the risks in HSSE are known risks. As such HSSE management can be planned considering these risks and also customizing it  to the project or operations requirements.

 Most important thing is to assess the requirement of HSSE from the project activities and align the HSSE efforts accordingly.

 Importance of HSSE in project construction and operations.

HSSE revolve around the project Knowledge Areas and Process, and in doing so, they take up numbers of processes to execute the  project for  quality output of the product. This must be there, but ultimate result depends upon how the workplace environment and work force health safety along with security are designed in project execution.

 A secured environment enhances the working efficiency of the work force at the workplace. This is achieved by use of right type of equipment for the right job, avoiding hazard substance or environment, use of authorized persons, adopting equivalent designs and taking the necessary and required precautions for work. Workforce works with confidence and dedication, if secured environment is available in working places.

 Equivalent: Alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Authorized person: A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the jobsite.

 Equipment is the set of necessary tools, clothing, etc. for a particular purpose and to achieve the purpose efficiently without causing harm to operation process

 Hazardous substance: A substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury

Precautions a measure taken in advance to prevent something dangerous and unpleasant or inconvenient from happening – is an important word being used in HSSE. Any action in real world these days is full of risks. We are prepared or must be prepared for known and at the same time must be prepared for unknown risks.

 Construction projects are full of risks- this include the risks inside the project operations and outside the project boundary that are related to project affected  areas.

Mainly these risks are related to human resources in the form of  injury, illness, accidents etcetera.

HSSE subject is important to any business, be it projects or operations, where workforce is employed, and work area environment is to be maintained.

 The engineers involved in construction and operations must be trained for the gap in their knowledge and skills, before putting them on the job.

 The industry must go through the technological changes and so it must manage in its HSSE implementation accordingly, and also remain in touch with educational institution to meet their requirement. These institutions accordingly impart education to engineer students for required inbuilt knowledge and skills, but even after this there remains some gaps when these engineers become workforce of the organization, which should be duly addressed by the organization before imparting necessary training.

 HSSE concerns are important at construction projects

To ensure a safe and healthy work environment and the workplace should provide a feeling to work without tension.

It is mandatory by law and enforcement measures.

It is necessary to avoid cost overrun due to unsafe working in unsafe health environment

One of the major concerns of the industry/organization is to maintain or upgrade the business value by good implementation of HSSE subject in the organization. (If there is well skilled and managed staff for HSSE, it will save the business cost on the time line)

 HSSE management is the concern for the following:

Organization

Sponsors

Project team

Constructors

Employees

Service Providers

Material Suppliers

Labor Unions

State Government

 As such the organizations must have their policies for the following disciplines, but not limited to:

Health Policy

Safety Policy

Security policy

Environment Policy

Quality Policy

Corporate Social Responsibility

 The policies must have accreditation such as, ISO-9001 for Quality, ISO-14001 for Environment Management, OSHA-18001 for Occupational Safety and Health .

 HSSE concerns at Construction Projects are addressed through the implementation of the approved management plans listed below.

Health, Safety, Security, Environment Manuals

Pollution Control

Restoration and land Scape

Erosion and Sediment Control

Waste Management

Traffic Management

Biodiversity Management

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Healthy, Safety Management Plan

Muck Management Plan

Tasks to manage HSSE

Understand the needs of safety and health for the type of construction projects

Know your legal responsibilities

Make a commitment to health and safety in the workplace

Plan how you will implement a safe working environment

Identify, assess and manage hazards

Provide information, training and supervision for employees

Report, record and investigate incidents, injuries and illnesses

Involve employees in the process to improve health and safety

Plan and be ready for emergencies

Include contractors and subcontractors in your hazard management processes

Help employees return to normal work after injury

 Read more on the Psychology of Safety and Risk by Dr Robert Long and George Robotham

 

 HSSE Organization

 HSSE Manager – Projects / Operations

Key Responsibilities:

Ensure that the approved plans are being followed for execution to the satisfaction of all stakeholders.

Ensure that necessary skills are being used in process operations, and methodology is followed, taking into considerations the all required HSSE measures.

Monitor & Control all HSSE matters related with project team members, the contractors, and the workforce follow the set norms and standards for specific requirements.

Ensure that HSSE manuals based on organization’s policy are being followed and workforce actions for the process operations are observed and noted for analysis

Any changes required to be made to the base plan must be discussed with all stakeholders and must be implemented after due approval of change control unit.

 

HSSE manger shall be responsible for the health, safety, environment, & security throughout the project duration to achieve safe project completion with increase in business value for tangible and intangible state

He must be aware of all construction/ operation activities and the processes to find out the requirements for the HSSE and participate in Risk Assessment and hold relevant meeting, workshop internally and with  other stakeholders.

Ensure that the necessary standards and norms of the local bodies and government are implemented efficiently and effectively.

Enforce and audit activities to ensure they meet design / plan requirements and other HSSE guideline.

Monitor and update the HSSE risks register and ensure all mitigation measures are adhere to, throughout the project life cycle / operation period.

 Prepare and manage required documents for related internal / external communication and audit.  

The On-job HSSE team

 The on-job HSSE cadre must follow the HSSE plan, and during the execution process, it should observe, the workforce’s actions on HSSE measures. And align them to the planned efforts, to be taken during construction operations.

 The team should note the processes to be performed, precautions to be met, and observe the actions of workforce in doing the job skill wise.

 The data collected should be analyzed for different categories of works and risks associated with their jobs or undesirable actions, some of which are mentioned below:

 Onsite facilities misuse

Falls into ditches

Electricity misuse

Barricade misuse

Improper use of equipment

Fire accidents

Vehicle accidents

No use of PPEs

Violation of work standards and norms

Non-participation on in awareness trainings

 (All such actions / violations notices must be brought to the notice of supervisors and to senior staff for follow up action which may include:

 High level meetings

Field level meetings

Training for awareness

On job training

PPE use awareness training

Training on security measures

Appointment of certified skilled staff)

 Acceptance of HSSE subject norms, like other norms is not effortless. It depends on the attitude of the worker-his behavior.

(Those who do not know can be trained. Those who do not want to know is an attitudinal problem. And needs special attention.)

 

Risk situations may be created by:

 

Electricity supply
Airborne particulate matter
Excavation operations
Underground blasting operations

Material handling and fabrication
Noise of construction operations
Vehicle movement

Slips

Works at height

Suicide

Etcetera

HSSE Management System
( The Principle- Zero accident in Project Life Cycle)

 HSSE Management System Documents encompasses:

A -Organizational Commitments for HSSE

(HSSE Policy and Goals, Responsibility and Accountability Matrix, Performance Reviews, Actions on unlawful involvement of work force, Issue Resolution, Change management, Staff management and High-level inspections)

 B -Planning, Identification of HSSE tasks from the Process groups, Monitoring & control, Evaluation and feedback system design.

 Depending on the perceived HSSE Challenges and project  HSSE requirements, project planning should include actions required during the project execution process. These may include perceived site specific Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Control Measure, Facilities Inspection designs, HSSE task lists, Instructions, Record Logs, Manuals, Training Requirements, Checklists, Emergency Response Planning, Incident Reporting and Investigation instructions and Reporting formats, Controls, Feedback and Communication implementation strategies. Preparation of  HSSE execution plan and its approval from team and the stakeholders.

 C -Execution of HSSE tasks

The execution processes must use required Inputs, Tools & Techniques for the desired Outputs as suggested in HSSE plans.

It is to be ensured that the execution is inline with the approved planning. Any changes required during execution process, or incorporation of additional requirements should be duly approved, and implemented after revised plan approval for further execution.

It should also be ensured that the quality of implementation operations is as per set standards and necessary report is generated.

D – Monitoring and Control.

It should be ensured that the implementation unit is following the planned instruction and no unauthoried deviation means are adopted. The field units  should follow the set rules and in case of any variations found by the monitoring unit the , these should be complied and reported. Any unusual implementation process exection should be brought in the knowledge of high level team for information and advice.

Also ensure that:

The compliance is done. ( Non Conformance Notices should be issued for any unacceptable output).

Involving Stakeholders in decision making

Training of all persons for plans of Health, Safety, Security a

All stakeholders must be aware of HSSE plans and its implementation

Roles and responsibilities of the persons under project manager must be clearly complied.

Involve everybody from initiation to planning to execution to end through a well-managed communication system

Important Required actions During Implementation Stage

Set procedures for processes
Set work instructions at the workplace
Create awareness about known risk
Supervisors must foresee the risks during construction operations and apprise workers about it

Conduct safety meetings
Ensure that work supervising force uses the required treatment for physical and mental ailments

Provide short rest breaks and avoid overtime.

Maintain HSSE files

 Set targets for :

Review and discuss the status in reality

Be open to receive other’s opinions
Active participation, learning from past and related projects Learning from incidents
Tool Box Training
Training of all stakeholders
Development of monitoring system
Employ trained and certified persons
Analyze the job and search for support providers

 A project involves both the shop floor activities and construction activities. So, whole area of the project must be given important attention by dedicated team of managers and supervisors so that accidents are bare minimum or Zero. It shall boost the morale of the work force and increase the efficiency.

Contrary to this, organization may face labor problems, legal problems etcetera which will affect the project timelines and other project constraints.

As such

Focus on the topic
Create awareness
Connect to work force
Evolve methods
Manage projects
Inbuilt HSSE in all knowledge areas and processes of project management

Special considerations be given to fire, electricity, lights, vehicles operations along with process hazard analysis and suggested precautionary measures required for awareness creation training and execution.

 Anything happening against these parameters in project management, spread in a big way and affects project operations and business. Without the required amenities it is always difficult to move within the limitations of the project constraints. It may affect schedule, cost, quality, resources and reputation.

 HSSE checks for system implementation

 Ensure that /mechanism/ arrangement exists and check for:

The workplace is safe to work for the required number of persons

HSSE head is in place

Awareness creation mechanism exists

Top management is committed

Awareness creation about existing enforcement measures Awareness about age of persons for construction jobs

Ensure safety of other service providers at the project

Ensure safety of community outside the boundary of the project Necessary insurance measure for all project participants Apprising the project team about HSSE plans

 

Apprising stakeholders about risks and plans

Policy document existence

Creation of milestones in planning

Hazard identification processes

Known hazards

Engagement of third party for training and consultancy

Availability of responsibility matrix

 

Ensure that the supervisory staff is duly certified

Crisis manager is available

Risk management plan and risk response plan exists

Existing of Injury / incident reporting and management system.

Arrangement of onsite training for staff

Site safety management for workers

Emergency procedures

Non -conformance notices implementation system

Injury / accident management system

Induction training

HSSE concerns documentation in contract

Awareness about legal requirement of HSSE training

Information and communication system about hazard management

Monitoring and feedback system

Functioning of digital real time equipment

 

And many others as per need of the project tasks

 Get Fit and be Efficient

Fitness is very important now in this fast-action-packed scenario to avoid accidents at work during travel and at home. It is not the gym exercises and is different.
It keeps you fit to carry out your functions.

A footballer, hockey player, badminton player or cricketer, plays the game part. These players to play the game without disruptions in actions need to be fit and therefore they get regular fitness training which is additional to their game.

The put the purpose is to make you understand that developing of EQ as well as to keep yourself fit for actions effectively and efficiently, is the requirement for the success. How important the follow up of HSSE guidance is, is clear from the information given by Heinrich Accident Triangle be

The Health, Safety, Security and Environment affect the workforce efficiency and their morale.  If duly taken care of, there is boost in production and recreation.
Contrary to this, business Value may reduce..

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. John F. Kennedy

 

Project Completion Report Format

 https://techconsults.in/project-completion-report-format/

Project Organizations

 https://techconsults.in/project-organizations/

The Role of Project Manager

 https://techconsults.in/the-role-of-project-manager/

Project Manager

 https://techconsults.in/project-manager/

Organisations

 https://techconsults.in/organisations/

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

 https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-2/

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)

https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-1/

Management Skills to Manage Unlawful Actions

 https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/

TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility

 https://techconsults.in/techconsults-professional-and-social-responsibility/

Project Management Framework Essentials 2

 https://techconsults.in/project-management-framework-essentials-2/

Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

 

https://techconsults.in/project-management-framework-essentials-1/

Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence

 

https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2

 

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2

 

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-1-2/

General – Workplace Enviroment

 

https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/

 

 

Project Completion Report Format

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

TechConsults---

Project Completion Report Format

  • SK Saxena FIE (India) PMP
  • PM 10 SK 15 November 29, 2018
  • - A Suggestive Format-

 

The project is unique in nature and it has its end one day, be it completed or closed.

Project manager is given the authority to manage the project. A completion report of the project is submitted internally to organization, in brief covering important aspects or based on desired outlines for the project.

Below is a format for submitting Project Completion Report. The document is a suggested reference only and can be customized to the project definition by adding or deleting certain referenced points.

The Government departments  may have their own requirements  associated with the approval of the projects,and as such they should be considered for the fictionalization of project completion reports.

Project Completion report Format

(Customization shall be required for the uniqueness of the project)

Preface

 

Basic information

Project Name Location/City/Country:

Project Reference: Name/ Name

Client with contact details:

End User- (in reference to the DPR approved):

Project approval department approval reference

Construction Agency/agencies

Project Manager:

 

Original Commitment Amount

Brief Financial Arrangements

Key Stakeholders

Borrower

Ministries at Government Level

Project Implementation Units

Other Implementing Agencies

Consultants                                                 

Monitoring unit

Financers

Resources (All)

Milestones Achievement Status

Rating Summery and Criteria

Executive Summary (An executive summary of the project should contain in brief the essence of the document without fine details and preferably without background an introduction.)

 

Important Information

what development challenge the project addresses,

-the Borrower’s overall strategy for addressing it,

-Banker’s strategy.

Objectives

State the Project Development Objective

Describe the major project components and indicate how each will contribute to achieving the Project Development Objectives.

Provide a brief assessment relevant to the country’s development

Objectives could in principle be achieved with the project inputs and in the expected output consistent with the country or regional strategy

Provide a brief assessment relevant to the country’s development

Objectives could in principle be achieved with the project inputs and in the expected output consistent with the country or regional  strategy.                                            

Summarize the Project

Status

Budget

Target Date

Risk level

Priority

 (The major components of the project, the major activities of each component and their expected outputs, outcomes, and indicators for measuring the achievement of outcomes   activities, outputs or outcomes)

 

Project Design

(State the extent to which the stakeholders ensured the project was commensurate with the Borrower’s capacity to implement by designing the project appropriately and by putting in place the necessary implementation arrangements. Consider all major design aspects, such as extent to which project design considered lessons learned from previous PCRs in the sector, and Borrower assessed the capacity of the implementing agencies and/or Project Implementation Unit; scope of consultations and partnerships; economic rationale of project)

For following each dimension of project design and readiness for implementation, provide a brief assessment:

Matching project complexity with country capacity and political  commitment.

 Inclusion of risk parameters in project design.

Project procurement, financial management, monitoring and/or other systems are based on those already in use.

Clearly defined responsibilities for project implementation.                                                                                           

Necessary implementation documents                                                                                                             

 Pre-determined monitoring indicators and monitoring plan

Baseline data– were available or were collected during project    design.

Appraisal and Quality

Implementation

(1. State the major characteristics of project implementation with reference to:  adherence to schedules, quality of construction or other work, performance of consultants, effectiveness of supervision, and effectiveness of Borrower oversight. Relationship of borrowers and bankers)

Comment on the role of other partners (e.g. donors, NGOs, contractors, etc.) Assess the effectiveness of co-financing arrangements and of donor coordination, if applicable.

Whether the Financiers made explicit efforts to harmonize instruments, systems and/or approaches with other partners.

For each following dimension of project implementation, assess the extent to which the project achieved the original dates / period and the brief reasons for delay in difference of original and actual dates, if any)

Cost Estimation

Construction Pricing and Contracting

Construction Planning

Fundamental Scheduling Procedures

Quality management system implementation

Monitoring and Evaluation 

 

Outcome, Relevance, and Efficiency of the following implementation status:

Risk management

Environment management

Stakeholder management

Borrower Performance

Sector Overview

Current Issues and future direction

Time Overruns

Cost overruns

Final Earned Value management statistics

Stakeholders Expectation and satisfaction details

Project communication System

Project Health, Safety, Security and Environment management status

Post project Implementation briefs

Comments & recommendations (incl. success stories & lessons learned)

Archived details of project documentation:

Findings

Lessons Learnt

References

Photographs

Videos

E diagrams

Objectives and benefits achievable

Unknown Risks Management briefs

Annexure   As Required

Sd/.  Project Manager

Sd/. Sponsor

 

 

 

Please visit  http://www.techconsults.in  to view TechConsults   

 “Our Blogpage to know more on Emotional Intelligence on the topics mentioned below:

 

https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/

 EI -1       SK -1           AUGUST 3,2018

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2           

EI-2             SK-2        August 12,2018

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/

Ei-3             SK-3         August 17, 2018

https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/

EI     PM-1           SK-4        August 30, 2018

Professional & Social responsibility                  

PM -4         Sk -7               September 18, 2018

https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/

PM-5    SK-8                       September 19, 2018

             

https://techconsults.in/project-manager/

PM 7    SK 12                       October 19, 2018

 

Project Manager

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Uncategorized

TechConsults

https://techconsults.in

Manage All Your Project Tasks Through the Project Manager

Project Manager

SK Saxene PMP

PM 7 SK 12 OCTOBER 18, 2018

The Project Manager

IntroductionThe Project Manager (PM), as the name suggest is assigned for managing the project, which is temporary endeavor, taken by the organization for meeting the challenges of market, (business needs), the customer needs, and the needs of technological changes, legal aspects, environment concerns etcetera. The role of PM depends upon the type of project and the organization.

The role of project manager is discussed in above context, inside the boundary of the project and beyond the boundary of project.

 The very important person for linking project, its management, management of the business objectives and the customer or sponsor need, is the Project Manager. (For more understanding please follow PMI – PMBOK Guide— www.pmi.org.

 The projects are small, big, complex and they may be located at places close to the organization and away from the organization, at remote places or in other countries.

The role of project manager, therefore varies depending upon the size of the project. Therefore, PM may work as expediter, as coordinator or as dedicated project manager, depending upon the volume of work and importance of work.

Project manager is mainly responsible for the execution of the project, from initiation of the project to closing of the project, but as per organization’s need, may be given tasks beyond the boundary of the project.

The boundary of project starts from project initiation and ends at project closing. That is, he initiates, plans, executes, controls and closes the project. Before this boundary is sponsor of the project or business need for which project has started. Also, beyond the boundary of this project is the customer for whose needs and satisfaction the project is taken up.

As such project manager is responsible for completion of the project as well as aligning the project with business needs and customer satisfaction.  He must be aware of inside environment of the project and the outside environment of the project and must be capable of encountering the pressures from within and outside about ongoing project activities.

Project Management Institute is a pioneer institute in providing PMP certification, world wide and is must for project manager who want to excel in project management Field— www.pmi.org

 The PM must work with the boundaries shown below

Knowledge, skills and Tools & Techniques project manager can align them in the project development processes and the result shall be to the satisfaction of not only the customer, but all the stakeholders.

 As such PM must take care both the inside and outside the project boundaries. Some factors that must be acknowledged in project planning and project tailoring are as follows;

 

  • Outside all stakeholders

  • Legal perspectives

  • Socio-economic environment

  • Business strategy and needs

  • Sponsor is most important stakeholder

  • Customer Satisfaction

  • Safety to Land, Water, and Air environment

  • The politics at national and international levels

 

In maintaining a balance within and outside the boundary of the project, the PM and his team should interact the outside conditions regularly and apprise them with the effect on project, so that the project dynamic is affected within controllable limits.

And in such atmosphere, there will be lot of problems and if not solved timely, will convert in issues.

All sort of issues should be get listed as per their severity and solution must be provided. Pareto Rule in such cases is great solution provider to PM.

 Project Manager must manage number of activities within the boundary and outside the boundary of the project. The internal environment has its own set rules, specifications and procedures and work flow is smooth. PM must ensure that project moves within the constraints. The internal environment of the project is already planned with controls / concerns of the external area.

 The outside environment (outside the project boundary)

of the project is also set with policies, procedures and rules to act on the project environment. But it has no boundary of actions, there is turbulence in it and as such it brings changes in the project environment.

PM must understand and analyses the changes, get meaningful information and regulate the provisions in bearing the turbulence and save the project against the external pressures.

 The project requires dealing with people and the communication with them. Interpersonal skills are important in dealing with them. It just not getting aware of these skills but also the important aspect is to use this skill.

And final say is that PM should use his IQ and EI to be successful in his actions oriented for project development. EI is extremely helpful soft skill for development of individual and the team

 PM is a professional who manages the project.

Wikipedia defines professionals as follows:

professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct and ethics. PMI provide professional certificate covering these aspects.

The managers utilized the skills and experience, tools and techniques, the processes to complete the work in past projects, and in doing so they were recognized for their efforts, and as such they became professionals

 It has been noted that in the organizations, this post is designated to a person based on his   participatory technical support or as per seniority list. And most of the time it is seen that he is very qualified person with in depth knowledge in some knowledge areas. Such person is not the right person assigned at a job of project manager. The Project Manager should be a generalist having knowledge of project works, including technical, social, commercial and environmental aspects. He may have not in-depth knowledge, but have wide knowledge in the application   area, along with use of tools and techniques, experience, good interpersonal skills with good communication abilities. He should be supported by specialist members in the team in the various operations of the project.

 The project manager should place a plan for execution only after it is agreed with the stakeholders.

Those who plan do better than those who do not plan, even though they rarely stick to their plan

   Winston Churchill

 

Please visit  http://www.techconsults.in  to view TechConsults   

 “Our Blogpage to know more on Emotional Intelligence on the topics mentioned below:

 https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/

 EI -1       SK -1           AUGUST 3,2018

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2           

EI-2             SK-2        August 12,2018

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/

Ei-3             SK-3         August 17, 2018

https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/

EI     PM-1           SK-4        August 30, 2018

Professional & Social responsibility                  

PM -4         Sk -7        September 18, 2018

https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/

PM-5    SK-8         September 19, 2018

 https://techconsults.in/techconsults-professional-and-social-responsibility/