TechConsults – Environment Management at Construction Projects

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"We Love to Manage Environment at Construction Projects - TechConsults

TechConsults efforts shall be for enhancing construction project management with the use of wisdom , knowledge and good practices tools and techniques , and by interaction in our BLOG section , supported by HSSE and TQM

SK Saxena PMP BE, MBA, FIE (India)

Environment management at Construction Projects HSSE 3 SK 18

Environment

Environment Impact Assessment

Types of pollutants

pH

pH diagram

Causes of pollutants

Environment Management Plans

Environment Management

Waste Generation Sources and Effluent Treatment

Prevention Measures to Check Water Pollution

Actions Required

Environment Indicators

Inspections Required

Construction Site Impacts on Environment

High Level Involvement

Weather Stations

Environmen

Environment is the sum of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces, which provide conditions for development and growth, as well as of danger and damages.

 

Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor are responsible for maintaining the sustainability of life and natural forces. These are:

 

Ambient temperature,

Sunlight, and 

pH of the water and soil

Availability of food for life

All the above factors, if disturbed and the balance in required conditions is not met, then the whole life process and the nature gets affected. All actions being done in development process throughout the world affects the land, the air and the water along with other environment factors mentioned above, and thereby affects the total life. There is need of sustainable development to counter such imbalances.

 Environment engineering principles are applied in all construction and development works and utmost care is taken to control degradation of land, air and water.

 Environmental engineering is the branch of engineering that uses the principles of science, technology and engineering, throughout the globe, for protection of life and nature from adverse impact on environmental factors. Environmental engineering system provide control measures for:

 Energy Preservation,

Waste Management 

Water Borne Diseases

Enforcement Measures

Water Management

Soil Management

Air Quality Management

Acid Rains

Global Warming

Ozone Layer

And many others

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Mitigation

World is changing all the times with the development and advancement in technology. This changes the existing environment conditions which may not be desirable. Therefore, in any project for development, it is exercised how the development affects the environment and what shall be the mitigation measures for adverse impact. The EIA done, provides a foresight to Construction Agency and the stakeholders, to implement necessary controls and mitigation measures.

 

The development-action output is damaging to existing land, water and air, and their users (Humans and non-Humans) and as such, if not managed properly is harmful for sustainable development.

 The assessment of requirements, the planning, the execution, the Monitoring & Control, the Feedback and Modifications must be judiciously done for development of HSSE Management System as suggested in TechConsult’s HSSE 1   SK 16  https://techconsults.in/health-safety-security-environment-at-construction-projects/     and should be earnestly implemented for a cost-effective project output

Types of Pollutants

There are two types of water pollutants from visibility point of view.
Which we can see (sediments, bed silt, suspended silt) and which we cannot see (dissolved solids, liquids and gases)

 

Every work site creates pollution such as from:

Excavation in soil or rock – sediments

Chemicals used in construction such as oils and Greece.

Effluent from workshops, blasting and other construction operations.

 

These pollutants reduce

Water clarity disturbs source of food and habitat inside the water and affects the life inside.

They carry Nitrogen and Phosphorus nutrients which helps in algal growth.

Reduces aesthetic value of flowing and non-flowing water.

Affects the quality of water for drinking and industry use.


Suspended silt makes the water turbid which increases virus and bacteria and reduced oxygen.

Non-visual pollutants (such as acids, lime, gypsum) can be dissolved in water or may remain in suspension, may settle on the bed and may go deep into the water level to meet the ground water and pollute the underground reservoir.

As such the after effects of the visual and non-visual pollutants are harmful to human in non-human. The contaminated water becomes unsuitable for drinking and construction purposes.

 

The water uses for domestic use specially for drinking may have adverse effect on the human life, if the quality of water is not good. The pH scale provides a general idea for quality of water for primary understanding. Also, readily available digital equipment proved instant quality status.

 

pH (potential of Hydrogen)

It is a measure of alkalinity or acidity of water at a given temperature.

 

Type of Solution

pH

 

 

Suitable range for surface water is 6.6 to 8’5

 

Suitable range for drinking water is 6.0 to 8.5

Acidic

<7

pH<6.5-water is acidic, sour in taste, water may contain Fe, Mn, Ca, Pb, Zn and is not fit for washing clothes

Hydrogen ion is more active

Neutral

7

pH of pure distilled water

Hydrogen and oxygen ion are equally active.

Basic or Alkaline

>7

pH > 8.5 is hard water

OH, ion is more active

Causes of pollution.

Agricultural management require pesticide and fertilizer to get the crop output in right way and in required quantity. All pesticides and fertilizers are not used and remain in top soil. Fecal matter of animals and humans also remains in the top soil. These pollutants are washed away with rain water and travel through drains and streams to rivers. Also, sewage is a major pollutant contributor. The problem is more serious when the streams and rivers are not in stage. That is in the dry season.

Industrial waste

The type of waste depends upon the type of industry in which different type of chemicals are released during the manufacturing / processing period and the effluents from these industries find their way ultimately to rivers or the ground water.

Infrastructure development waste

The waste produced in construction projects from rural development to urban development to development in oil gas and energy sectors, contributes to pollutants, that affects the environment (land, air, water) and have direct impact on construction work force.

 Medical Waste

It is waste created at clinics and hospitals at construction project sites. The quantity may be less and considering this, it becomes the part of normal waste. This practice is not desirable. Special category must be designated for this water disposal management in consultation with state medical units.

 

If it can’t be reduced, reused, repaired, rebuilt, refurbished, refinished, resold, recycled, or composted, then it should be restricted, designed or removed from production.”
– Pete Seeger, Folk Singer & Social Activist

Environment Management Plans

Pollution Control

Restoration and Land Scape

Erosion and Sediment Control

Waste Management

Waste Water Management

Air Quality Management

Land Degradation Management

Traffic Management

Biodiversity Management

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Healthy, Safety Management Plan

Muck Management Plan

 

Environmental Management:

Water resources management

Continuous monitoring of the water resources utilization and quality is done. Daily logging / recording of borehole and surface water values at the abstraction points, and sprinkling records monitoring are also done and records. On the other hand, discharged water quality monitoring is done once in every month

Water Quality Monitoring

 Water related diseases

 

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis, Guinea worms, Eye diseases, Skin diseases,

 

Summary of Water Quality indicators

Indicators

Parameters

Radioactive

Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation emitters

Biological

Bacteria, Algae

Aesthetic

Color, Odor. Organic floating matter

Physical

Temperature, Turbidity, Dissolved solids, color, salinity, suspended solids, dissolved solids

Chemical

·        pH DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Nutrients (including N & P), organic and inorganic compounds, COD

 

Waste generation source, and processes involved in effluent treatment

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects, frequently, and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled, and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

Waste generation source, and processes involved in effluent treatment

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects, frequently, and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled, and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

The Action of poor quality of water on Construction outputs

(please refer to TechConsults blog post

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-2/

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction——— (part 1)

https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-1/  )

 

After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

Organic matter present in water during its bio degradation process consumes oxygen, which reduces BOD of water. Low oxygen availability is harmful for aquatic life.

The organic matter from sewage and industrial effluents, provide nutrients to water bodies and drains. This increases plant life, decreases oxygen, and as such affects aquatic life.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Also, in agricultural use of water, such dissolved solids, deposit inside the top soil after evaporation. These solids damage the fertility of the soil. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.

 

Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

Water sprinkling

The project construction works are open to traffic used for construction and for the movement of machines such as the earth moving machines. The movement of the traffic creates dust nuisance thereby polluting the air and is a major source of health hazard. As such continuous sprinkling of dust creating areas should be done.

Waste Management

 Waste of oils and lubricants should not be allowed to drain out in earth or streams

The waste from toilets should go to sewage treatment plant and should be disposed only after the disposal criteria is followed.

The food waste must be sorted out in types of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes

Biodegradable waste can be treated by covering it with earth and watering. This may be done in layers. Earth worm use it and convert it into good fertilizers which may be used for agriculture.

Non-biodegradable waste specially of plastics should be collected, shredded for recycling.

The waste disposal site should be kept covered, with proper drainage all around. This is the place where the waste is primarily dumped first before sorting.

Muck Management:

Excavation is a voluminous activity at most of the construction projects and is taken out from over the ground and under the ground.

In both cases the excavated earth / rock should me managed properly by maintaining a muck management plan and controlling the muck disposal operations.

 

Following are some of the important points to be considered.

Assess the Quantity of muck disposal.

Mark the disposal sites on the map and get its approval.

Construct and maintain haul roads from excavation to disposal site.

Water the haul roads to avoid dust control.

Spread muck in layers in the desired area within the height limits.

The rock muck is used at crushing and processing plants to get different size aggregates for construction needs. This operation needs watering of the aggregates for washing and avoiding dust nuisance. Sedimentation tanks must be used for treatment of this muddy water. And only thereafter clear water must be disposed to streams, water bodies or river.

Dust creating plants must have:

Dust catchers and removers. Such collected dust laden water must be disposed through settling tanks.

Greenery in the area must be developed.

Provide water sprinkling system in the plants

Provide metaled roads in the area

Wind breakers should be provided.

Equipment and vehicles used must follow latest technology norms

Temperature of the effluents must not be higher by 5 degree centigrade with respect to receiving body temperature.

 

Biodiversity Monitoring:

In far off project areas near protected forests there may be requirements of reporting details about the following:

Status of water bodies including their number, spread, and effect of project construction on them (how biodiversity gets affected).

Status of wild animals on the project site (may include their attacks on project workforce) and effect of project on the wild life (How project activities have affected their spread in the area and how many encounters done with animals and with what results)

How project construction has affected the waters of stream, waterbodies, and river with respect to water quality and life in and around such water sites. (the quality data must be monitored with a baseline data prepared for area affected by the project.)

The above data must be maintained during the project period at intervals required for proper monitoring and control

Actions Required  

The effluents from the surface treatment plants, construction sites, industries need to be treated with best available technology and tested with digital instruments. Air quality monitoring must be done weekly or as required in underground works depending on the work operations. (Real time monitoring mechanisms are better)

Noise level monitoring is done weekly or on the scale of operations

Sedimentation tanks cleaning and sediment disposal

Measuring of effluent discharge into the river

Water, soil and effluent sampling and testing

The technological upgradation must be taken on priority.

All actions must be based on quality plans and assurance measures, predetermined to the satisfaction of standard requirement.

The Quality Control feedback, and the modifications on the feedback, if required must be done immediately.

Standard laboratories with latest equipment and technology must help in testing the quality of effluents.

The receiving bodies quantity capacity and quality capacities must be ascertained before allowing disposal into them.

The simplified technology use’ properly standardize must be enforced by awareness creation and mandatory laws.

The discharges from tannery, textile, paper, plastics, petrochemical and food processing mills, and other pollutants creating units must be checked for COD and BOD, before and after effluent treatment.

The construction project road stabilization and sediment control measures must be taken timely.

 Please refer to Blog Q2  SK 10 on Water Quality for consumption & Construction.

 Environmental Indicators:

Environmental indicators are simple measures that tell us

What is happening in the environment? These are:

Substances Recycled 

Water Abstraction Records

Waste Disposal

Muck Managed

Wild Life Displaced

Water Quantity Sprinkled

Wild Life Added

Air quality monitoring at different workplace

locations

Water quality data with respect to baseline

 Number of Wild life encounters

Number of animal species encountered

Total amount of waste generated (kg)

Amount of biodegradable waste (kg)

Amount of Inorganic waste collected (kg)

Amount of waste recycled (kg)

Number of incidents observed/ reported

Total mileage covered by vehicle fleet

Total volume of water used by project

Amount of aggregates collected after crushing of rock

Total quantity of muck managed

And more as per project needs

List of Inspections to be taken up at construction projects (may be customized to project need)

Muck management Inspection

Sampling at site -all categories

Stakeholder engagement

Legal enforcement follows up

Planned action follow up

Processing plant inspection         

Noise and air quality assessment

Traffic volume and speed records

Sedimentation tank inspection

Haul road management Inspection

Waste awareness promotion

Wild encounter recording

Daily water abstraction records

Oil slippage monitoring

 Investigating and tracing for Suspected Wild animal, if available in project area

 Basting Vibration Monitoring

Nose monitoring inside the tunnels

Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

 Construction site water pollution control mechanisms:

Sediment control in effluents-This is done by draining the sediment laden site area water into sedimentation tanks of designed capaciti

Water should be allowed to drain out only after sedimentation has taken place. Important locations such as tunnel portals and aggregate processing plants and batching plants etcetera are some of the locations where sedimentation tanks are to be provided.

It is necessary to manage construction activities as per specifications, and strict monitoring and controls are to be provide.

Take all necessary steps for pollution control of air water and land areas associated with construction project.

Follow up of environment control / management Act.

Biodiversity maintenance norms and construction project specifications, policy and procedures decided along with necessary control measure must be followed in totality.

Mange the storm water drainage, project roads management, by controlling the inflow of pollutants in drains and sprinkling roads with water at desired interval.

 

Follow the machine and equipment use procedures.

Implement the system for optimum and required use of the equipment to check pollutants generation.

Necessary test and control measures should be taken by site construction units, supervision units and third-party checks.

Maintain proper documentation, for operating procedures of machine and equipment, used in construction works. Audits and Inspection of the work should be done as per standard requirements.

Administration of contract as per contact document is necessary, along with other support requirements of contract provisions.

Awareness creation should be given priority. A sincere effort in awareness creation, and it follow up to requirement, makes a big difference.

On site instructions during pre-construction stage, during construction stage and post construction stage should be displayed for every activity related to pollution control.

Quality control team should provide necessary feedback and issue Notices for Non conformance. There should be regular testing, monitoring, reporting, and discussions, on control measures.

 The most important steps taken  at the higher levels are:

The clearly and coordinate based site map of construction project, that fulfill the requirements, should be handed over to the construction agency (CA).

The CA must keep the project area fenced with gates, for safety and security. The activities areas inside the occupied areas should be marked and the maps should be revised periodically based on the pace of development inside the area.

All the stakeholders should participate in providing support to mandatory control measure

 Construction of check dams on natural drains and streams, help in creating low velocity of water, which provides more settling time to particles and checks flow of sediments.

Check dams provide more time to store water and, the water percolates to recharge the ground water.

Check dams can increase the ground water table in river basins.

City sewage must be treated in sewage treatment plants and only treated effluents be allowed to join the river.

 

 

Coliform exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control of effluents.

 

 

Weather Monitoring

Weather monitoring station is a requirement at the project areas to assess the changes during and after construction of projects. Also, this data helps construction agencies and organizations to plan the required activities as they get a clear status of the environment. The data also helps to resolve construction related issues raised by the Construction Agencies during project operations. The data may be monitored in the below mentioned format:

 

Weather Monitoring format

Date

Rainfall

Temperature

Humidity (%)

Max

Total

Max

Min

Average

Max

Min

Average

         

 

 

 

Following instruments are used in weather station to record data for different parameters. Generally, five to eight parameters may be recorded but essential ones are

 

 Thermometer for measuring air and sea surface temperature

 Barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure

 Hygrometer for measuring humidity

 Anemometer for measuring wind speed

 Pyranometer for measuring solar radiation

 Rain gauge for measuring liquid precipitation

Automatic data recording and transmitting weather stations with real time data transmission are best for construction sites and may be installed near the environment laboratory setup.

 What has been said above is valid for all type of construction projects, specially the far of from urban areas and in remote areas.

Projects are also taken in urban areas for development and modernization and are different in environment management due to complexity of works and the threats to the dense inhabitations. Special attention must be paid to the land, water and air quality management. The air quality index monitoring for particulate matters may affect the health of the inhabitants to a great extent.

Following links may be explored for more information, and may explore https://techconsults.in

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

Health Management at Construction Projects

Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

 

“World environment day 2018

Don’t pollute Water,
Don’t Pollute Air,
Don’t Pollute Environment,
And Don’t Pollute yourself
Celebrate the world Environment Day 2018!”

sksaxena@techconsults.in

Health Management at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in health

TechConsults

TechC

Health Management at Construction Projects

SK Saxena PMP BE MBA FIE (India) - HSSE 1 SK 17

Health Management at Construction Projects

HSSE  1 SK  17    Dec 15, 2018

Health 

Health Is a state of complete physical mental and social well being and not only absence of diseases or infirmity.

 

The human right include housing and living conditions (Places with amenities as per standards), healthy working conditions at workplace, and medical care, suffice to attainable physical and mental health standards.

Everyone has the right to health and it must be provided as public good at the construction projects.

 

It is necessary to provide a good Hospital /Clinic at project site supported by first aid and ambulances and other provisions, staff, doctors, nurses for its complete functioning.

All such services must be to the state standards and accountable to sufferings of human beings for immediate medical requirements at the right time.

 

At the construction projects the workforce consists of people of different culture religion caste and as such there should be no discrimination in provision of quality services, availability of goods and resources, support to community, with transparency and accountability.

Maintaining a good Health Management System at site is the requirement of the project and is responsibility of all stakeholder and the workforce

The assessment of requirements, the planning, the execution, the Monitoring & Control, the Feedback and Modifications must be judiciously done for development of Health Management System as suggested in TechConsult’s  Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

SK 16    https://techconsults.in/health-safety-security-environment-at-construction-projects/

and should be earnestly implemented for a cost-effective project output.

 Health of the workforce is affected at construction projects by the following factors:

 Polluted Air

Waterborne diseases

Improper disposal of sewage

Land degradation

Sexually transmitted diseases

Bad quality of food

Site related accidents

After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.

 Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

Coliforms exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

 Pollutant Control

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control of effluents.

Major control parameters are

BODBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in each water sample at certain temperature over a specific time. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per liter of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.

CODIn environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution. It is commonly expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution which in SI units is milligrams per liter (mg/L). A COD test can be used to easily quantify the number of organics in water. The most common application of COD is in quantifying the amount of oxidize able pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater. COD is useful in terms of water quality by providing a metric to determine the effect an effluent will have on the receiving body, much like biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). —-Source Wikipedia

ColiformColiform bacteria are organisms that are present in the environment and in the feces of all warm-blooded animals and humans. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.

pH Value -pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.  The term pH refers to the potential hydrogen/ hydroxyl ion content of a solution.  Solutions ionize into positive and negative ions.  If a solution has more hydrogen (positive) ions than hydroxyl (negative) ions, then it is acidic and has a pH in the range of 0 to 6.9.  Alternatively, if a solution has more hydroxyl (negative) ions than hydrogen (positive) ions then it is alkaline with a pH in the range of 7.1 to 14.  Pure water and deionized water have a balance of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions and is therefore pH neutral (pH 7).

 If the pH of a solution is not within the correct range the plant will not have the ability to absorb some of the essential elements required for proper plant growth.  All plants have a pH range, which will produce healthy growth, and this level will vary from plant to plant, but most plants prefer a slightly acidic growing environment (5.8 to 6.2), although most plants can survive in an environment with pH values between 5.0 and 7.0.

The developed health system should be base don the principals of Equity, Adaptability, Universality, and Transparency with the Participation of all.

Equity being impartial to all genders.  

 

Adaptability – the quality of project administration to adjust to new conditions and flexibility to accept change

 

Universality-The quality of being true or appropriate for all.

 

Transparency – Open in such a way so that others may know what actions are being performed. It helps in trust building in the avoidance of problems and issues.  

 

Participation- All stakeholders to take part and contribute in construction site management, as it finally improves the. procedures involved in the Healthcare.

 

Think over it Good Health and Good Senses are Two of Life’s Greatest blessings-Sy

 

Construction sites have varying environment depending on the scale of operation of the project. Therefore, the health management practices must be design for peak load

Proactive health steps shall create an atmosphere of Wellness and will meet requirements of health definition. 

SOME FORMATS FOR RECORDING ACTIVITIES STATUS:

1 Sample format for Record of Number of Ailments Recorded in Year–———-

Ailment

June

 

May

 

April

March

February

Malaria

 

 

 

 

 

Diarrhea

 

 

 

 

 

Dysentery

 

 

 

 

 

E.N.T 

 

 

 

 

 

AIDS

 

 

 

 

 

STD

 

 

 

 

 

UTI

 

 

 

 

 

Skin disorders

 

 

 

 

 

VD

 

 

 

 

 

Typhoid

 

 

 

 

 

Respiration disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Cardiovascular

 

 

 

 

 

Gastric disease

 

 

 

 

 

Trauma-RTA

 

 

 

 

 

Trauma

 

 

 

 

 

other diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Total Number

 

 

 

 

 

 

  2 Workforce at Site Clinic

Position

Number

Doctor

 

Pathologists

 

Nurse

 

Lab assistants

 

Ward Boys

 

Clerks

 

Ambulance Drivers

 

Scavengers

 

Front office attendants

 

 3 Accommodation facilities at Construction site

CAMP

Description of Accommodation

Number of Rooms

Number residents

Public toilets

Community/ kitchens

REMARK

CAMP A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTALS

 

 

 

 

 

 Construction works are of varying nature depending on the types of project, and therefore attention should be given on the execution of tasks and their aftereffects on the health of workforce.

It is the responsibility of the entire workforce and the organization and local government bodies to jointly participate in implementation, monitoring and control the likely creation of factors against health hazards.

It should also be seen that the inhabitants outside the work area are given a safe guard against the perceived health complications.

The management must have a proactive approach to avoid any kind of aftereffects on health due to project activities.

Following measures must be taken:

Involvement of all workforce from top to bottom in identifying the health hazards, their prevention and support in aftereffect management.

There must be pro action in finding potential health threats an in enforcement of the control measures.

Conscious awareness creation among the workforce about hazard prevention so that injuries, illness, sufferings and deaths may be avoided.

 If health programs are implemented seriously by the organizations, it will reduce costs due to;

Making workplace incident free

Loss of man hours saved

Less cost of new additional work force recruitment

Saving in training and placement costs

Saving extra efforts of organization.

Saving in material involved

 OSHA suggest easy things to start the programs for health care and they refer to following actions:

Health and safety hazard control measure must be given a top priority by entire work force at the work place.

Healthcare actions taken by team individuals becomes effective learning lessons for others

Create a reporting system about health concerns and share with all the important findings.

Train the workers in identification and control of health hazards

Conduct joint site inspections and issue on site instructions for findings and document them for further monitoring in daily, weekly and monthly meetings. Problems’ and issues log should be maintained for getting help from high level offices.

Collect ideas from workforce for checks on the health hazards as they are nearer to work operations. Further this shall be considered as their involvement and they shall be motivated to help the organization in maintaining a critical eye on health hazard identification and controls.

 Risks are every where on life. You walk on hill roads and any time a stone may fall on you. But walking is not stopped. People becomes used to such risks and they are careful. But in new project activities, location and nature of project, the risks should be assessed by the experts and the workforce must be apprised about the precautionary measures to be taken by them to avoid health and safety after effects.

Health Program orientation should involve following factors:

Management leadership involvement

Workforce participation with dedication

Hazard identification and controls, preferably jointly by the project authority, the constructor and the entire work force.

Hazard prevention and controls.

Education and training all workforce and its implementation by the superiors on daily, weekly and monthly basis.

Monitoring the implementation efforts, exercising controls and providing feedback and information for further necessary improvement actions.

Maintaining a good communication system preferably as real time as possible.

Creating awareness about fitness and wellness in workforce.

Proper coordination at all level for implementation, assessment, controls and further necessary directions.

 

Fitness is very important now in this fast-action-packed scenario to avoid accidents at work during travel and at home. It is not the gym exercises and is different.
It keeps you fit to carry out your functions.
A footballer, hockey player, badminton player or cricketer, plays the game part. These players to play the game without disruptions in actions need to be fit and therefore they get regular fitness training which is additional to their game. The put the purpose is to make you understand that developing of EQ as well as to keep yourself fit for actions effectively and efficiently, is the requirement for the success.

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. John F. Kennedy

Get to know the real

Quality Water to Drink

Community participation

Enjoy the Benifits of a very good health

Images: WOCinTechChat, Bike: 1, 2, 3

Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Health Safety Security Environment (HSSE)

“Prevent the worst and Put safety first, because being Safe today will keep you Alive tomorrow”

TOPICS:

HSSE General

Importance of HSSE in Project Construction

HSSE Concerns

HSSE Management

HSSE Concerns at Project

Tasks to Manage HSSE

HSSE Organization

HSSE Manager

On-site HSSE Team

Risk Situations

HSSE Management System

Required Actions

Set Targets

HSSE Checks

Get Fit and be Efficient

Hendricks Accident Triangle

Too often we exaggerate the risk of a hazard and categorize what is merely possible as probable because it is easier to enforce than if we make an honest assessment. Some safety professionals, in the name of “zero-injuries” will heap regulation after regulation on a job until the organization rebels and simply refuses to comply. When it comes to making the workplace safer, the more complex and/or burdensome the solution the far less likely the compliance.

 We must understand that there are limits to the amount of protection we can provide to people and if when exceed the perceived reasonable limits we not only fail to protect in that instance, but we lose credibility and jeopardize compliance with safety protocols that are essential for basic safety. When safety professionals’ risk tolerance is out of alignment with societal norms the safety professional is doomed to a life of frustration. – Phil Ladoke

 

General- Health Safety, security and Environment (HSSE) on Construction projects

 A project is unique in itself; no two projects may be the same. But they work within the same knowledge areas and process groups (may be customized as per requirement of the project)

The Health, Safety, Security and Environment management factors are valid for all the projects. Except a few unknown risks, all the risks in HSSE are known risks. As such HSSE management can be planned considering these risks and also customizing it  to the project or operations requirements.

 Most important thing is to assess the requirement of HSSE from the project activities and align the HSSE efforts accordingly.

 Importance of HSSE in project construction and operations.

HSSE revolve around the project Knowledge Areas and Process, and in doing so, they take up numbers of processes to execute the  project for  quality output of the product. This must be there, but ultimate result depends upon how the workplace environment and work force health safety along with security are designed in project execution.

 A secured environment enhances the working efficiency of the work force at the workplace. This is achieved by use of right type of equipment for the right job, avoiding hazard substance or environment, use of authorized persons, adopting equivalent designs and taking the necessary and required precautions for work. Workforce works with confidence and dedication, if secured environment is available in working places.

 Equivalent: Alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Authorized person: A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the jobsite.

 Equipment is the set of necessary tools, clothing, etc. for a particular purpose and to achieve the purpose efficiently without causing harm to operation process

 Hazardous substance: A substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury

Precautions a measure taken in advance to prevent something dangerous and unpleasant or inconvenient from happening – is an important word being used in HSSE. Any action in real world these days is full of risks. We are prepared or must be prepared for known and at the same time must be prepared for unknown risks.

 Construction projects are full of risks- this include the risks inside the project operations and outside the project boundary that are related to project affected  areas.

Mainly these risks are related to human resources in the form of  injury, illness, accidents etcetera.

HSSE subject is important to any business, be it projects or operations, where workforce is employed, and work area environment is to be maintained.

 The engineers involved in construction and operations must be trained for the gap in their knowledge and skills, before putting them on the job.

 The industry must go through the technological changes and so it must manage in its HSSE implementation accordingly, and also remain in touch with educational institution to meet their requirement. These institutions accordingly impart education to engineer students for required inbuilt knowledge and skills, but even after this there remains some gaps when these engineers become workforce of the organization, which should be duly addressed by the organization before imparting necessary training.

 HSSE concerns are important at construction projects

To ensure a safe and healthy work environment and the workplace should provide a feeling to work without tension.

It is mandatory by law and enforcement measures.

It is necessary to avoid cost overrun due to unsafe working in unsafe health environment

One of the major concerns of the industry/organization is to maintain or upgrade the business value by good implementation of HSSE subject in the organization. (If there is well skilled and managed staff for HSSE, it will save the business cost on the time line)

 HSSE management is the concern for the following:

Organization

Sponsors

Project team

Constructors

Employees

Service Providers

Material Suppliers

Labor Unions

State Government

 As such the organizations must have their policies for the following disciplines, but not limited to:

Health Policy

Safety Policy

Security policy

Environment Policy

Quality Policy

Corporate Social Responsibility

 The policies must have accreditation such as, ISO-9001 for Quality, ISO-14001 for Environment Management, OSHA-18001 for Occupational Safety and Health .

 HSSE concerns at Construction Projects are addressed through the implementation of the approved management plans listed below.

Health, Safety, Security, Environment Manuals

Pollution Control

Restoration and land Scape

Erosion and Sediment Control

Waste Management

Traffic Management

Biodiversity Management

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Healthy, Safety Management Plan

Muck Management Plan

Tasks to manage HSSE

Understand the needs of safety and health for the type of construction projects

Know your legal responsibilities

Make a commitment to health and safety in the workplace

Plan how you will implement a safe working environment

Identify, assess and manage hazards

Provide information, training and supervision for employees

Report, record and investigate incidents, injuries and illnesses

Involve employees in the process to improve health and safety

Plan and be ready for emergencies

Include contractors and subcontractors in your hazard management processes

Help employees return to normal work after injury

 Read more on the Psychology of Safety and Risk by Dr Robert Long and George Robotham

 

 HSSE Organization

 HSSE Manager – Projects / Operations

Key Responsibilities:

Ensure that the approved plans are being followed for execution to the satisfaction of all stakeholders.

Ensure that necessary skills are being used in process operations, and methodology is followed, taking into considerations the all required HSSE measures.

Monitor & Control all HSSE matters related with project team members, the contractors, and the workforce follow the set norms and standards for specific requirements.

Ensure that HSSE manuals based on organization’s policy are being followed and workforce actions for the process operations are observed and noted for analysis

Any changes required to be made to the base plan must be discussed with all stakeholders and must be implemented after due approval of change control unit.

 

HSSE manger shall be responsible for the health, safety, environment, & security throughout the project duration to achieve safe project completion with increase in business value for tangible and intangible state

He must be aware of all construction/ operation activities and the processes to find out the requirements for the HSSE and participate in Risk Assessment and hold relevant meeting, workshop internally and with  other stakeholders.

Ensure that the necessary standards and norms of the local bodies and government are implemented efficiently and effectively.

Enforce and audit activities to ensure they meet design / plan requirements and other HSSE guideline.

Monitor and update the HSSE risks register and ensure all mitigation measures are adhere to, throughout the project life cycle / operation period.

 Prepare and manage required documents for related internal / external communication and audit.  

The On-job HSSE team

 The on-job HSSE cadre must follow the HSSE plan, and during the execution process, it should observe, the workforce’s actions on HSSE measures. And align them to the planned efforts, to be taken during construction operations.

 The team should note the processes to be performed, precautions to be met, and observe the actions of workforce in doing the job skill wise.

 The data collected should be analyzed for different categories of works and risks associated with their jobs or undesirable actions, some of which are mentioned below:

 Onsite facilities misuse

Falls into ditches

Electricity misuse

Barricade misuse

Improper use of equipment

Fire accidents

Vehicle accidents

No use of PPEs

Violation of work standards and norms

Non-participation on in awareness trainings

 (All such actions / violations notices must be brought to the notice of supervisors and to senior staff for follow up action which may include:

 High level meetings

Field level meetings

Training for awareness

On job training

PPE use awareness training

Training on security measures

Appointment of certified skilled staff)

 Acceptance of HSSE subject norms, like other norms is not effortless. It depends on the attitude of the worker-his behavior.

(Those who do not know can be trained. Those who do not want to know is an attitudinal problem. And needs special attention.)

 

Risk situations may be created by:

 

Electricity supply
Airborne particulate matter
Excavation operations
Underground blasting operations

Material handling and fabrication
Noise of construction operations
Vehicle movement

Slips

Works at height

Suicide

Etcetera

HSSE Management System
( The Principle- Zero accident in Project Life Cycle)

 HSSE Management System Documents encompasses:

A -Organizational Commitments for HSSE

(HSSE Policy and Goals, Responsibility and Accountability Matrix, Performance Reviews, Actions on unlawful involvement of work force, Issue Resolution, Change management, Staff management and High-level inspections)

 B -Planning, Identification of HSSE tasks from the Process groups, Monitoring & control, Evaluation and feedback system design.

 Depending on the perceived HSSE Challenges and project  HSSE requirements, project planning should include actions required during the project execution process. These may include perceived site specific Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Control Measure, Facilities Inspection designs, HSSE task lists, Instructions, Record Logs, Manuals, Training Requirements, Checklists, Emergency Response Planning, Incident Reporting and Investigation instructions and Reporting formats, Controls, Feedback and Communication implementation strategies. Preparation of  HSSE execution plan and its approval from team and the stakeholders.

 C -Execution of HSSE tasks

The execution processes must use required Inputs, Tools & Techniques for the desired Outputs as suggested in HSSE plans.

It is to be ensured that the execution is inline with the approved planning. Any changes required during execution process, or incorporation of additional requirements should be duly approved, and implemented after revised plan approval for further execution.

It should also be ensured that the quality of implementation operations is as per set standards and necessary report is generated.

D – Monitoring and Control.

It should be ensured that the implementation unit is following the planned instruction and no unauthoried deviation means are adopted. The field units  should follow the set rules and in case of any variations found by the monitoring unit the , these should be complied and reported. Any unusual implementation process exection should be brought in the knowledge of high level team for information and advice.

Also ensure that:

The compliance is done. ( Non Conformance Notices should be issued for any unacceptable output).

Involving Stakeholders in decision making

Training of all persons for plans of Health, Safety, Security a

All stakeholders must be aware of HSSE plans and its implementation

Roles and responsibilities of the persons under project manager must be clearly complied.

Involve everybody from initiation to planning to execution to end through a well-managed communication system

Important Required actions During Implementation Stage

Set procedures for processes
Set work instructions at the workplace
Create awareness about known risk
Supervisors must foresee the risks during construction operations and apprise workers about it

Conduct safety meetings
Ensure that work supervising force uses the required treatment for physical and mental ailments

Provide short rest breaks and avoid overtime.

Maintain HSSE files

 Set targets for :

Review and discuss the status in reality

Be open to receive other’s opinions
Active participation, learning from past and related projects Learning from incidents
Tool Box Training
Training of all stakeholders
Development of monitoring system
Employ trained and certified persons
Analyze the job and search for support providers

 A project involves both the shop floor activities and construction activities. So, whole area of the project must be given important attention by dedicated team of managers and supervisors so that accidents are bare minimum or Zero. It shall boost the morale of the work force and increase the efficiency.

Contrary to this, organization may face labor problems, legal problems etcetera which will affect the project timelines and other project constraints.

As such

Focus on the topic
Create awareness
Connect to work force
Evolve methods
Manage projects
Inbuilt HSSE in all knowledge areas and processes of project management

Special considerations be given to fire, electricity, lights, vehicles operations along with process hazard analysis and suggested precautionary measures required for awareness creation training and execution.

 Anything happening against these parameters in project management, spread in a big way and affects project operations and business. Without the required amenities it is always difficult to move within the limitations of the project constraints. It may affect schedule, cost, quality, resources and reputation.

 HSSE checks for system implementation

 Ensure that /mechanism/ arrangement exists and check for:

The workplace is safe to work for the required number of persons

HSSE head is in place

Awareness creation mechanism exists

Top management is committed

Awareness creation about existing enforcement measures Awareness about age of persons for construction jobs

Ensure safety of other service providers at the project

Ensure safety of community outside the boundary of the project Necessary insurance measure for all project participants Apprising the project team about HSSE plans

 

Apprising stakeholders about risks and plans

Policy document existence

Creation of milestones in planning

Hazard identification processes

Known hazards

Engagement of third party for training and consultancy

Availability of responsibility matrix

 

Ensure that the supervisory staff is duly certified

Crisis manager is available

Risk management plan and risk response plan exists

Existing of Injury / incident reporting and management system.

Arrangement of onsite training for staff

Site safety management for workers

Emergency procedures

Non -conformance notices implementation system

Injury / accident management system

Induction training

HSSE concerns documentation in contract

Awareness about legal requirement of HSSE training

Information and communication system about hazard management

Monitoring and feedback system

Functioning of digital real time equipment

 

And many others as per need of the project tasks

 Get Fit and be Efficient

Fitness is very important now in this fast-action-packed scenario to avoid accidents at work during travel and at home. It is not the gym exercises and is different.
It keeps you fit to carry out your functions.

A footballer, hockey player, badminton player or cricketer, plays the game part. These players to play the game without disruptions in actions need to be fit and therefore they get regular fitness training which is additional to their game.

The put the purpose is to make you understand that developing of EQ as well as to keep yourself fit for actions effectively and efficiently, is the requirement for the success. How important the follow up of HSSE guidance is, is clear from the information given by Heinrich Accident Triangle be

The Health, Safety, Security and Environment affect the workforce efficiency and their morale.  If duly taken care of, there is boost in production and recreation.
Contrary to this, business Value may reduce..

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. John F. Kennedy

 

Project Completion Report Format

 https://techconsults.in/project-completion-report-format/

Project Organizations

 https://techconsults.in/project-organizations/

The Role of Project Manager

 https://techconsults.in/the-role-of-project-manager/

Project Manager

 https://techconsults.in/project-manager/

Organisations

 https://techconsults.in/organisations/

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

 https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-2/

Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)

https://techconsults.in/water-quality-for-consumption-construction-part-1/

Management Skills to Manage Unlawful Actions

 https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/

TechConsults Professional and Social responsibility

 https://techconsults.in/techconsults-professional-and-social-responsibility/

Project Management Framework Essentials 2

 https://techconsults.in/project-management-framework-essentials-2/

Project Management Framework Essentials – 1

 

https://techconsults.in/project-management-framework-essentials-1/

Process Developement Supports – Fitness & Emotional Intelligence

 

https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 2/2

 

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2

 

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-1-2/

General – Workplace Enviroment

 

https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/

 

 

Project Completion Report Format

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

TechConsults---

Project Completion Report Format

  • SK Saxena FIE (India) PMP
  • PM 10 SK 15 November 29, 2018
  • - A Suggestive Format-

 

The project is unique in nature and it has its end one day, be it completed or closed.

Project manager is given the authority to manage the project. A completion report of the project is submitted internally to organization, in brief covering important aspects or based on desired outlines for the project.

Below is a format for submitting Project Completion Report. The document is a suggested reference only and can be customized to the project definition by adding or deleting certain referenced points.

The Government departments  may have their own requirements  associated with the approval of the projects,and as such they should be considered for the fictionalization of project completion reports.

Project Completion report Format

(Customization shall be required for the uniqueness of the project)

Preface

 

Basic information

Project Name Location/City/Country:

Project Reference: Name/ Name

Client with contact details:

End User- (in reference to the DPR approved):

Project approval department approval reference

Construction Agency/agencies

Project Manager:

 

Original Commitment Amount

Brief Financial Arrangements

Key Stakeholders

Borrower

Ministries at Government Level

Project Implementation Units

Other Implementing Agencies

Consultants                                                 

Monitoring unit

Financers

Resources (All)

Milestones Achievement Status

Rating Summery and Criteria

Executive Summary (An executive summary of the project should contain in brief the essence of the document without fine details and preferably without background an introduction.)

 

Important Information

what development challenge the project addresses,

-the Borrower’s overall strategy for addressing it,

-Banker’s strategy.

Objectives

State the Project Development Objective

Describe the major project components and indicate how each will contribute to achieving the Project Development Objectives.

Provide a brief assessment relevant to the country’s development

Objectives could in principle be achieved with the project inputs and in the expected output consistent with the country or regional strategy

Provide a brief assessment relevant to the country’s development

Objectives could in principle be achieved with the project inputs and in the expected output consistent with the country or regional  strategy.                                            

Summarize the Project

Status

Budget

Target Date

Risk level

Priority

 (The major components of the project, the major activities of each component and their expected outputs, outcomes, and indicators for measuring the achievement of outcomes   activities, outputs or outcomes)

 

Project Design

(State the extent to which the stakeholders ensured the project was commensurate with the Borrower’s capacity to implement by designing the project appropriately and by putting in place the necessary implementation arrangements. Consider all major design aspects, such as extent to which project design considered lessons learned from previous PCRs in the sector, and Borrower assessed the capacity of the implementing agencies and/or Project Implementation Unit; scope of consultations and partnerships; economic rationale of project)

For following each dimension of project design and readiness for implementation, provide a brief assessment:

Matching project complexity with country capacity and political  commitment.

 Inclusion of risk parameters in project design.

Project procurement, financial management, monitoring and/or other systems are based on those already in use.

Clearly defined responsibilities for project implementation.                                                                                           

Necessary implementation documents                                                                                                             

 Pre-determined monitoring indicators and monitoring plan

Baseline data– were available or were collected during project    design.

Appraisal and Quality

Implementation

(1. State the major characteristics of project implementation with reference to:  adherence to schedules, quality of construction or other work, performance of consultants, effectiveness of supervision, and effectiveness of Borrower oversight. Relationship of borrowers and bankers)

Comment on the role of other partners (e.g. donors, NGOs, contractors, etc.) Assess the effectiveness of co-financing arrangements and of donor coordination, if applicable.

Whether the Financiers made explicit efforts to harmonize instruments, systems and/or approaches with other partners.

For each following dimension of project implementation, assess the extent to which the project achieved the original dates / period and the brief reasons for delay in difference of original and actual dates, if any)

Cost Estimation

Construction Pricing and Contracting

Construction Planning

Fundamental Scheduling Procedures

Quality management system implementation

Monitoring and Evaluation 

 

Outcome, Relevance, and Efficiency of the following implementation status:

Risk management

Environment management

Stakeholder management

Borrower Performance

Sector Overview

Current Issues and future direction

Time Overruns

Cost overruns

Final Earned Value management statistics

Stakeholders Expectation and satisfaction details

Project communication System

Project Health, Safety, Security and Environment management status

Post project Implementation briefs

Comments & recommendations (incl. success stories & lessons learned)

Archived details of project documentation:

Findings

Lessons Learnt

References

Photographs

Videos

E diagrams

Objectives and benefits achievable

Unknown Risks Management briefs

Annexure   As Required

Sd/.  Project Manager

Sd/. Sponsor

 

 

 

Please visit  http://www.techconsults.in  to view TechConsults   

 “Our Blogpage to know more on Emotional Intelligence on the topics mentioned below:

 

https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/

 EI -1       SK -1           AUGUST 3,2018

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2           

EI-2             SK-2        August 12,2018

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/

Ei-3             SK-3         August 17, 2018

https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/

EI     PM-1           SK-4        August 30, 2018

Professional & Social responsibility                  

PM -4         Sk -7               September 18, 2018

https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/

PM-5    SK-8                       September 19, 2018

             

https://techconsults.in/project-manager/

PM 7    SK 12                       October 19, 2018

 

Project Manager

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Uncategorized

TechConsults

https://techconsults.in

Manage All Your Project Tasks Through the Project Manager

Project Manager

SK Saxene PMP

PM 7 SK 12 OCTOBER 18, 2018

The Project Manager

IntroductionThe Project Manager (PM), as the name suggest is assigned for managing the project, which is temporary endeavor, taken by the organization for meeting the challenges of market, (business needs), the customer needs, and the needs of technological changes, legal aspects, environment concerns etcetera. The role of PM depends upon the type of project and the organization.

The role of project manager is discussed in above context, inside the boundary of the project and beyond the boundary of project.

 The very important person for linking project, its management, management of the business objectives and the customer or sponsor need, is the Project Manager. (For more understanding please follow PMI – PMBOK Guide— www.pmi.org.

 The projects are small, big, complex and they may be located at places close to the organization and away from the organization, at remote places or in other countries.

The role of project manager, therefore varies depending upon the size of the project. Therefore, PM may work as expediter, as coordinator or as dedicated project manager, depending upon the volume of work and importance of work.

Project manager is mainly responsible for the execution of the project, from initiation of the project to closing of the project, but as per organization’s need, may be given tasks beyond the boundary of the project.

The boundary of project starts from project initiation and ends at project closing. That is, he initiates, plans, executes, controls and closes the project. Before this boundary is sponsor of the project or business need for which project has started. Also, beyond the boundary of this project is the customer for whose needs and satisfaction the project is taken up.

As such project manager is responsible for completion of the project as well as aligning the project with business needs and customer satisfaction.  He must be aware of inside environment of the project and the outside environment of the project and must be capable of encountering the pressures from within and outside about ongoing project activities.

Project Management Institute is a pioneer institute in providing PMP certification, world wide and is must for project manager who want to excel in project management Field— www.pmi.org

 The PM must work with the boundaries shown below

Knowledge, skills and Tools & Techniques project manager can align them in the project development processes and the result shall be to the satisfaction of not only the customer, but all the stakeholders.

 As such PM must take care both the inside and outside the project boundaries. Some factors that must be acknowledged in project planning and project tailoring are as follows;

 

  • Outside all stakeholders

  • Legal perspectives

  • Socio-economic environment

  • Business strategy and needs

  • Sponsor is most important stakeholder

  • Customer Satisfaction

  • Safety to Land, Water, and Air environment

  • The politics at national and international levels

 

In maintaining a balance within and outside the boundary of the project, the PM and his team should interact the outside conditions regularly and apprise them with the effect on project, so that the project dynamic is affected within controllable limits.

And in such atmosphere, there will be lot of problems and if not solved timely, will convert in issues.

All sort of issues should be get listed as per their severity and solution must be provided. Pareto Rule in such cases is great solution provider to PM.

 Project Manager must manage number of activities within the boundary and outside the boundary of the project. The internal environment has its own set rules, specifications and procedures and work flow is smooth. PM must ensure that project moves within the constraints. The internal environment of the project is already planned with controls / concerns of the external area.

 The outside environment (outside the project boundary)

of the project is also set with policies, procedures and rules to act on the project environment. But it has no boundary of actions, there is turbulence in it and as such it brings changes in the project environment.

PM must understand and analyses the changes, get meaningful information and regulate the provisions in bearing the turbulence and save the project against the external pressures.

 The project requires dealing with people and the communication with them. Interpersonal skills are important in dealing with them. It just not getting aware of these skills but also the important aspect is to use this skill.

And final say is that PM should use his IQ and EI to be successful in his actions oriented for project development. EI is extremely helpful soft skill for development of individual and the team

 PM is a professional who manages the project.

Wikipedia defines professionals as follows:

professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct and ethics. PMI provide professional certificate covering these aspects.

The managers utilized the skills and experience, tools and techniques, the processes to complete the work in past projects, and in doing so they were recognized for their efforts, and as such they became professionals

 It has been noted that in the organizations, this post is designated to a person based on his   participatory technical support or as per seniority list. And most of the time it is seen that he is very qualified person with in depth knowledge in some knowledge areas. Such person is not the right person assigned at a job of project manager. The Project Manager should be a generalist having knowledge of project works, including technical, social, commercial and environmental aspects. He may have not in-depth knowledge, but have wide knowledge in the application   area, along with use of tools and techniques, experience, good interpersonal skills with good communication abilities. He should be supported by specialist members in the team in the various operations of the project.

 The project manager should place a plan for execution only after it is agreed with the stakeholders.

Those who plan do better than those who do not plan, even though they rarely stick to their plan

   Winston Churchill

 

Please visit  http://www.techconsults.in  to view TechConsults   

 “Our Blogpage to know more on Emotional Intelligence on the topics mentioned below:

 https://techconsults.in/general-workplace-enviroment/

 EI -1       SK -1           AUGUST 3,2018

Emotional Intelligence at Workplace 1/2           

EI-2             SK-2        August 12,2018

https://techconsults.in/emotional-intelligence-at-workplace-2-2/

Ei-3             SK-3         August 17, 2018

https://techconsults.in/process-developement-supports-fitness-emotional-intelligence/

EI     PM-1           SK-4        August 30, 2018

Professional & Social responsibility                  

PM -4         Sk -7        September 18, 2018

https://techconsults.in/management-skills-to-manage-unlawful-actions/

PM-5    SK-8         September 19, 2018

 https://techconsults.in/techconsults-professional-and-social-responsibility/

 

Organisations

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Uncategorized

Organisations

Project Manaagment

PM 6   SK  11                 October 15, 2018

Introduction, Work breakdown structure of functional unit,Span and Level Control, Design of Organization, Why project Management, Line organization, Line and Staff organization – are the titles discussed in this Blog

INTRODUCTION Business operations are carried out by various organizations to sustain their business. This is done by taking up new ventures or projects for developing new products and services. The project / service development depends on the need of organization and the type of organization. Project Manager is an important person responsible for the project execution. The organizational structure, the type of project needs varies for organizations and as such project manager must be aware about the types of organization in which to work for project development / management and execution. This blog provides first hand details of the various type of organizations.

                                                                                                                                            Sk saxena

Organization isn’t about perfection; it’s about efficiency, reducing stress and clutter, saving time and money and improving your overall quality of life.    

Christina Scalise

Project OrganizationOrganizations are organized group of people with a purpose, such as an organization in private and public sector, to carry out business under rules and regulations decided by the operative laws of government of the country, in which the business is to be carried out. The synonyms given below further provide clarifications.

(company, firm, concern, operation, corporation, group, consortium syndicate, body, agency, federation, association, etcetera.)

The organization work for a purpose, and when the purpose needs modification, which can not be taken up in the existing operative stage of the organization, then based on technicality and complexity of need the organization generates a special unit for a fixed time to take up the project. The work force and the subject matter specialists are taken from within the organization or hired from outside as per requirement.

 The creation of organizational structure revolves around the business need (Business needs are dynamic in nature as they depend on the changing economic, social, technical and legal environments; and so, the organizations are also dynamic) and some necessary general / special considerations. The organization structure (OS) is a typical hierarchical arrangement of line of authority, communication, rights and duties.

The OS reflects:

How the workforce of the organization is grouped?

How they are placed at various levels?

How the authority is to be delegated?

How is the span of control?

 How is the unity of command line of the organization?

Who is responsible at various levels of organization?

 The OS provide unity of command line from top to bottom. The horizontal span work force at different levels must also be aware of it.

 In the below mentioned chart the levels and span are as below:

Levels- CEO, Business Units (BU), Units, Sub Units, Staff are the various levels in the organizational structures.

Span- BU1 has its span of control on Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 3 and Unit 1 has its span of control on Sub Unit 1, Sub Unit 2, and Sub Unit 3.

The span is less at lower level and increases at upper level, from responsibility point of view.

 

Work breakdown structure of a functional unit

Another example of Span and Levels:

 

The Design of Organization

The size of organizations differs with respect to local small business, zonal, national or international business but the following points should be considered to design the organization structure effectively. These are general but important points to consider. Special considerations may be given to complex projects.

  • Several departments are involved in the achievement of organizational goal. A proper coordination among these department is required, by having efforts and guidance from their top level.
  • The structure must be in conformity to goals / objectives of the organization.
  • Every post created must be goal oriented.
  • The specialist persons should be assigned so that process outflows are streamlined
  • The roles of responsibility must be clearly defined. If organization head is to be supported by various other unit heads, and each unit head is further supported by sub units head and so on, then the responsibility must be defined at all such levels.

 

(Responsibility is responding ability of actions against the assigned tasks. It is the response toYour action to the assigned taskYour actions to assigned authority and controlsYour actions to people’s skill you use in task management.And so, onThe respond for both good or bad outcome is desirable.If you are responsible, it means your actions, your controls, your decisions, your commitments, your behavior in assigned task are reflected. You cannot delegate them.)
  •  

 

 

  • The units and sub units and further sub division, along with adequate support staff requirement, must be very rightly provided.

  • Overstaffing or understaffing provisions may damage the organization’s efficiency. Similarly, the quantum of work assignment may lower the organizational efficiency if not assigned properly and may lead to conflicting situations.

  • Unity of command is to be followed. Everyone should seek advice from and report to the boss. A subordinate should not put on works under two bosses

Unity of Command– The principle that no subordinate in an organization should report to more than one boss. (Boss- This word is used to refer to any higher-level employee in a company, including a supervisor, manager, director, or the CEO 

 

  • The organizational structure must be understandable by all work force to the extent desired.

  • Cost, quality, and time overrun variations must be avoided by providing necessary monitoring and control measures at required levels, and timely feedback arrangement should be there with the help of well-balanced organizational communication system.

  • Efficiency and effectiveness of the organization required to achieve the goal must reflect in organizational structure design.

  • Top management should delegate authority at each level and avoid unnecessary direct involvement at other levels.

 

Why Project Management

Sometimes senior person or specialist of the organization are appointed to takes over the responsibility of project manager. Such person may not be fruitful unless he cashes the opportunity given with his will power and using both the IQ and the Emotional Intelligence. But it is not desirable to do so.

A professional should be appointed with wider work area knowledge of all the subjects, may be in little depth. Project Manager, if selected because of his knowledge, tools and techniques, skills and their application, and to the satisfaction of organization, may ultimately be responsible for success or failure of the project.

Project manager must use both art (the use of Emotional Intelligence) and science of management (the use of work-oriented IQ) to manage his work.

 

When moving towards understanding the project management one must have a real-world idea of what is project. Also, an experience of working on projects will enhance the understanding process of project management.

But why project management? Why it is required?

If you have the experience of projects in real life you might have come across the following shortcomings during or after the project operations stage:

 Poor work quality and more rework

Too much pursuance on resource management.

Overtime and cost overrun

Unrealistic plans

 Financials irregularity and mis planning

Poor information system

Issues of health safety security and environment

Dissatisfaction of stakeholders

Poor risk and procurement and costing

 The above problems can be avoided if

 Project charter is there.

Roles and responsibilities are defined

 Planning is done with the consent of stakeholders

Historical information and lesson learnt are taken in account in project planning and execution

PMO is in place to guide

EEF an OPA are being incorporated in project planning

Proper work breakdown structure and estimating procedures

 Stakeholders are managed

Good communication and PMIS system

Earned value management

Professional project management along with following Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct.

Th project management incorporate some points as mentioned above and others for streamline project operations.

It is also noted that project managers posted on the project are specialist in or the other streams.

There is no need of a specialist for the project manager, instead a generalist having wider area experience but not much in depth. is a suitable person.

Lessons learnt on the previous projects must be well understood and utilized

 The organizations that generally exists are as follows:

Line organizationAs discussed in the functional structure chart

Line organizations are headed by a person responsible for achieving organizational objective such as President or CEO at level one of organization chart and may have different departments under him such as Production, Marketing, HR etcetera at level two. Each department may be spitted further vertically and horizontally as per the necessities involved in creation of organizational structure.

Each department has direct vertical relationship with the organization, not lateral unless permission granted by top authority.

Authority and accountability are decided at all levels.

An organization has its business goal or objective to achieve.

Authority travels downwards from top and accountability upwards from bottom along the chain of command.

The level unit head has control over unit’s performance

At each level there may be work breakdown structure as shown in work break down structure chart

The business unit the line staff is posted one below the other as per column B in unity of command, authority flow is from top to bottom. Responsibility, authority and accountability is clearly defined

Line and staff organization As discussed in functional structure In line and staff organization structure chart.

The business unit line staff as column B is provided with support staff as per column C. The support staff is provided for advisory roles only. The unity of command, authority flow is from top to bottom. Responsibility, authority and accountability is clearly defined

Organizations    have a workplace environment, which helps the work force to interact and work in it.

This environment includes:

A good building, to house the work place. A clean, pollution free ail land and water amenities which may include but not limited to as given below:

A designed work place by a good Architect, and incorporation of office required structure design. Both exterior design and the interior design of the workplace matters.

Agood furniture design in perfectly designed interiors.

Air conditioning system,

Electricity system supported by electricity generation sets, Solar electricity systems.

Eco friendly green building for workplace are now coming up and must be used.

Water supply system supported by instant digital equipment for water quality checks.

In built security system to provide safety from outside and inside threats. May include Security personals, safety equipment.

Sanitation- a much needed control on waste management and its disposal along with having necessary checks on effluents with digital equipment and observations.

And many more.

The facility laden workplace shall boost the workforce behavior, their efficiency and results in boost to production.

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Water Quality for Consumption & Construction — Part 2

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IntroductionThe purpose of sharing this information, in this extension as part 2 is that with the changes in construction environment, awareness must be created in knowing the water quality and its use in construction. And at the same time people must be aware of actions that pollutes water from construction and other industry use or domestic use of water.

Causes of Pollution, Waste to Effluent management Processes, Action of water on cement and steel, after effects of polluted water, Preventive steps to check pollution, Major pollution control parameters, Actions required.

The purpose of sharing this information is that with the changes in construction environment, awareness must be created in knowing the water quality and its use in construction. And at the same time people must be aware of actions that pollutes water from construction use or domestic use of water.

 Causes of pollution.

Agricultural management require pesticide and fertilizer use to get the crop output in right way and in required quantity. All is not used and remain in top soil. Fecal matter of animals and humans also remains in the top soil. These pollutants are washed away with rain water and travel through drains streams to rivers. Also, sewage is a major pollutant contributor. The problem is more serious when the streams and rivers are not in stage. That is in the dry season.

Industrial waste

The type of waste depends upon the type of industry in which different type of chemicals are released during the manufacturing / processing period and the effluents from these industries find their way ultimately to rivers or the ground water.

Infrastructure development waste

The waste produced in construction projects from rural development to urban development to development in oil gas and energy sectors, contributes to pollutants, that affects the environment (land, air, water) and have direct impact on construction workforce.

The existing water sources particularly in lean periods need to be checked for quality aspects,  frequently and after getting the results, a through planning and process execution must be decided so that the  domestic needs, the agriculture needs are fulfilled and water quality is safe so as not to harm the concrete and steel used in construction.

The Action of Water

The action of water on cement and all other things where cement is used, (such as concrete, RCC, plaster, floor finishes) is very important to get desired properties in product development with cement, in fresh and hardened state of such products.

 

The properties of cement products are:

  • Workability of the concrete

  • Initial setting time

  • Final setting time

  • Strength of concrete plaster and masonry

  • Curing

  • Durability of concrete

 

Cement reacts in presence of water and the gel is produced which acts as a binding material among the different constituents of concrete.

The chemical properties of water affect the gel formation and thus the ultimate product is affected in achieving its required properties.

 

 

 

pH (potential of Hydrogen)

It is a measure of alkalinity or acidity of water at a given temperature.

Type of Solution

pH

 

 

 

 

Suitable range for surface water is 6.6 to 8’5

 

Suitable range for drinking water is 6.0 to 8.5

Acidic

<7

pH<6.5-water is acidic, sour in taste, water may contain Fe, Mn, Ca, Pb, Zn and is not fit for washing clothes

Hydrogen ion is more active

Neutral

7

pH of pure distilled water

Hydrogen and OH ion are equally active.

Basic or Alkaline

>7

pH > 8.5 is hard water

OH, ion is more active

 

 

If the pH is on lower side then the salts of Fe, Mn, Ca, Pb, Zn may reduce the initial strength of concrete.

Steel in RCC may rust.

 

The acids, the waste and sugar, reduces strength of mortar or concrete.

The silt in water reduces strength of concrete

Oils and lubricants present in water may reduce the strength by about 20%

Algae in water used for concrete reduces its strength and its bond strength with steel

Concrete having reinforcement may spall and steel may rust

 

Reinforcement is used in concrete to provide it strength in bending, compression, tension, torsion and shear etcetera. Steel contains carbon and the contents of carbon vary as per required quality of steel. This steel is hot rolled and cooled to provide smooth or ribbed steel.

The water present in concrete enters the rusted pores of steel and around steel to form a layer of (OH) ions of Fe and Ca. The (OH) ion activity raises the pH of liquid around the steel and on setting forms a protective layer around steel which protects the steel from atmospheric actin. (Passivate steel)

The surrounding environment of reinforced cement concrete (RCC) consist of air (all types of gases present), water (all types of water), and land (all types of earth). Also, the pure water of rain washes away some particles of concrete and creates spaces on the surface of concrete.

The aggressive elements from the surrounding environment such as Cl and CO2 penetrate in to concrete, and as they reach near reinforcement insubstantial amount creates rusting. The rusting causes expansion and the concrete spalls.

 

Cl is present in air and is soluble and may enter concrete pores from water and outside water.

CO2 present in air enters the pores of concrete and acta with Ca and pore water to form calcium carbonate. Which is expansive and is a cause of concrete deterioration. CO2 needs moist conditions for its action. the atmosphere to have humidity > 70 %.

The surface needs to be protected to avoid the action of such pollutants.

After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs may, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

Organic matter present in water during its bio degradation process consumes oxygen, which reduces BOD of water. Low oxygen availability is harmful for aquatic life.

The organic matter from sewage and industrial effluents, provide nutrients to water bodies and drains. This increases plant life, decreases oxygen, and as such affects aquatic life.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Also, in agricultural use of water, such dissolved solids, deposit inside the top soil after evaporation. These solids damage the fertility of the soil. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.

 Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

 Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

 Construction site water pollution control mechanisms:

 Sediment control in effluents-This is done by draining the sediment laden site area water into sedimentation tanks of designed capacities.

Water should be allowed to drain out only after sedimentation has taken place. Important locations such as tunnel portals and aggregate processing plants and batching plants etcetera are some of the locations where sedimentation tanks are to be provided.

 It is necessary to manage construction activities as per specifications, and strict monitoring and controls are to be provide.

Take all necessary steps for pollution control of air water and land areas associated with construction project.

Follow up of environment control / management Act.

Biodiversity maintenance norms and construction project specifications, policy and procedures decided along with necessary control measure must be followed in totality.

Mange the storm water drainage, project roads management, by controlling the inflow of pollutants in drains and sprinkling roads with water at desired interval.

Follow the machine and equipment use procedures.

Implement the system for optimum and required use of the equipment to check pollutants generation.

Necessary test and control measures should be taken by site construction units, supervision units and third-party checks.

Maintain proper documentation, for operating procedures of machine and equipment, used in construction works. Audits and Inspection of the work should be done as per standard requirements.

Administration of contract as per contact document is necessary,

 along with other support requirements of contract provisions.

Awareness creation should be given priority. A sincere effort in awareness creation, and its follow up to requirement, makes a big  difference.

On site instructions during pre-construction stage, during construction stage and post construction stage should be displayed for every activity related to pollution control.

Quality control team should provide necessary feedback and issue Notices for Nonconformance. There should be regular testing, monitoring, reporting, and discussions, on control measures.

 The most important steps taken are at the higher levels are:

The clearly and coordinate based site map of construction project ,that fulfill the requirements, should be handed over to the construction agency (CA).

The CA must keep the project area fenced with gates, for safety and security. The activities areas inside the occupied areas should be marked and the maps should be revised periodically based on the pace of development inside the area.

All the stakeholders should participate in providing support to mandatory control measure

Construction of check dams on natural drains and streams, help in creating low velocity of water, which provides more settling time to particles and checks flow of sediments.

Check dams provide more time to store water and, the water percolates to recharge the ground water.

Check dams can increase the ground water table in river basins.

City sewage must be treated in sewage treatment plants and only treated effluents be allowed to join the river.

Coliform exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

 Pollutant Control

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control  of effluents.

Major control parameters are

BODBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per liter of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.

 COD-In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution. It is commonly expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution which in SI units is milligrams per liter (mg/L). A COD test can be used to easily quantify the number of organics in water. The most common application of COD is in quantifying the amount of oxidizable pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater. COD is useful in terms of water quality by providing a metric to determine the effect an effluent will have on the receiving body, much like biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). —-Source Wikipedia

ColiformsColiform bacteria are organisms that are present in the environment and in the feces of all warm-blooded animals and humans. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.

pH ValuepH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.  The term pH refers to the potential hydrogen/hydroxyl ion content of a solution.  Solutions ionize into positive and negative ions.  If a solution has more hydrogen (positive) ions than hydroxyl (negative) ions, then it is acidic and has a pH in the range of 0 to 6.9.  Alternatively, if a solution has more hydroxyl (negative) ions than hydrogen (positive) ions then it is alkaline with a pH in the range of 7.1 to 14.  Pure water and deionized water have a balance of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions and is therefore pH neutral (pH 7).

 If the pH of a solution is not within the correct range the plant will not have the ability to absorb some of the essential elements required for proper plant growth.  All plants have a pH range, which will produce healthy growth, and this level will vary from plant to plant, but most plants prefer a slightly acidic growing environment (5.8 to 6.2), although most plants can survive in an environment with pH values between 5.0 and 7.0.

Plants grown in acidic environments can experience a variety of symptoms, including aluminum (Al), hydrogen (H), and/or manganese (Mn) toxicity, as well as nutrient deficiencies of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg).

Conversely, in alkaline environments molybdenum (Mo) and macronutrients (except for phosphorus) availability increases, but phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) levels are reduced, and may adversely affect plant growth.

Best Availability of Salts

pH Value Range

Nitrogen

6-8

Phosphorus

7-10

Potassium, Sulphur

6-10

Calcium

7-8

Magnesium

6-8

Iron

4-6

Magnesium, Copper, Zinc

5-7

Molybdenum

6-10

 

From the chart above each element can become more and less available to the plants as pH changes.  If the pH of your solution is out of the desired range, one or more of the essential elements will become unavailable to the plant, causing nutrient deficiencies, which will result in slow growth rates, and poor yields.

Actions Required  

The effluents from the surface treatment plants, construction sites, industries need to be treated with best available technology and tested with digital instruments.

The technological upgradation must be taken on priority.

All actions must be based on quality plans and assurance measures, predetermined to the satisfaction of standard requirement. The Quality Control feedback, and the modifications on the feedback, if required must be done immediately.

Standard laboratories with latest equipment and technology must help in testing the quality of effluents.

The receiving bodies quantity capacity and quality capacities must be ascertained before allowing disposal into them.

 

‘The simplified technology use’ properly standardize must be enforced by awareness creation and mandatory laws.

The discharges from tannery, textile, paper, plastics, petrochemical and food processing mills, and other pollutants creating units must be checked for COD and BOD, before and after effluent treatment.

Dust creating plants must have:

Dust catchers and removers. Such collected dust laden water must be disposed through settling tanks.

Greenery in the area must be developed.

Provide water sprinkling system in the plants

Provide metaled roads in the area

Wind breakers should be provided.

Equipment and vehicles used must follow latest technology norms

Temperature of the effluents must not be higher by 5 degree centigrade with respect to receiving body temperature.

 The construction project road stabilization and sediment control measures.

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Water Quality for Consumption & Construction———(part 1)

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Water is one of the most important items on the earth for sustaining life for humans and non-humans and the ongoing development activities. Life begin in oceans about 326 million years ago and then moved on to surface of the earth, and today it exists in the form of humans and non-humans.
Water has its cycle and exists in three state and is enough in quantity for requirements. However, due to increased population and development, the timely availability is not there, and it becomes scarce in lean or dry period. As such water as well as waste management has become more important in this scenario and quality aspects are discussed in this write up.

About water, Domestic and Industrial use of water, Composition of Water, Effect of development on water, Water use standards, Managing Aspects, Pollutants, pH, Water borne diseases, Water quality Indicators

“Water is the lifeblood of our bodies, our economy, our nation and our well-being. “                                     Stephen Johnson

Facts about water:

  • Scientifically it is two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen.

  • It is consumed but never used up.

  • It gets recycled as per hydrological cycle. The water we are using today does have the touch of our ancestors- human and non-humans.

  • About 65% to 70% of water exists on planet Earth.

  • A drop of water weighs about 0.1 gram.

  • Is a universal solvent. It dissolves even the rocks but takes time

  • Different isotopes of Hydrogen combine with oxygen to provide heavy and super heavy water

  • Water exists in three states: Solids, Liquids and Gases.

    Temperature and Pressure are responsible for the change of state of water.

  • Newborn baby has around 70% water in the body. Th water contents gets reduced to around 50 % in old age.

  • Lack of water causes dehydration, and human being may die in about 7 days without water.

  • Human requirement of water is 2.0 liter per day. About 250 liter of water is required per capita per day in modern days.

  • Approximately 1 part of water is consumed in drinking and 99 parts are used for other purposes.

Water or Hydrological Cycle– USGS

“When they went ashore the animals that took up a land life carried with them a part of the sea in their bodies, a heritage which they passed on to their children and which even today links each land animal with its origin in the ancient sea. Fish, amphibian, and reptile, warm-blooded bird and mammal – each of us carries in our veins a salty stream in which the elements sodium, potassium, and calcium are combined in almost the same proportions as in sea water. This is our inheritance from the day, untold millions of years ago, when a remote ancestor, having progressed from the one-celled stage, first developed a circulatory system in which the fluid was merely the water of the sea. In the same way, our lime-hardened skeletons are a heritage from the calcium-rich ocean of Cambrian time. Even the protoplasm that streams within each cell of our bodies has the chemical structure impressed upon all living matter when the first simple creatures were brought forth in the ancient sea. And as life itself began in the sea, so each of us begins his individual life in a miniature ocean within his mother’s womb, and in the stages of his embryonic development repeats the steps by which his race evolved, from gill-breathing inhabitants of a water world to creatures able to live on land.’
– R. Carson – The Sea Around Us (1951)



The water requirement has changed with the increase in population and now water is required for drinking, agriculture, industry, navigation etcetera in increased quantity.
This requirement of water is on daily basis and water has its own seasonal cycle of availability of water. As such the natural available water cannot fulfil the water requirements.

The gap between supply and demand are being achieved by water conservation and water management.

 The requirement is to maintain proper health by consumption of water in domestic and other uses, with the use of quality- water. `

Some definitions of water in modern day environment:

White water:  Water used for drinking, bathing, washing. This is the primary use of water.

Grey water:  Water obtained after primary use of water is called grey water. And is used for secondary purposes such as house wash, car wash, gardening etcetera, and may also be used for toilet flushin

 

Dark water: The water from sinks, wash basins, and toilets is called Black water. The gray water after use is also the part of Dark Water

Water for domestic and industry use

Just like ‘quality water use’ for human consumption, the   water requirement for industrial and construction use must have a good quality. The standards of quality water use exist, and the Thumb Rule of water for construction use quality is that it must be potable. Using such a rule now needs careful approach starting from construction of dwelling units for the downtrodden to middle class and high-class housing industry.  The care less approach may crawl to other areas of construction as the workforce belongs to an unexperienced environment and is not aware of disadvantages of poor-quality water use in construction.

 It is seen in most of the areas, that small house /office industry construction works, though are designed properly, but the construction practices are not even the fair practices.

People are mostly aware that if steel and cement are of good quality and in satisfactory quantity than they shall have the best construction.

The owners of construction units remain dependent on the skills of construction staff. Here skill development / upgradation is necessary and instead of experienced work force, the skilled workforce should be given priority in employment for better implementation of the work specifications. Repeated guidance provided on the job site make them aware of the good construction practices.

The purpose of sharing this information is that with the changes in construction environment, awareness must be created in knowing the water quality and its use in construction. And at the same time people must be aware of actions that pollutes water from construction use or domestic use of water.

Composition of Water

Composition of water, that is available from water bodies for use, depends upon, the surrounding environment (land, water, air) actions on water bodies, which also include the natural and unnatural actions, and the processes that take place in the water body environment.

These are:

  • Climate and weather conditions of the basin and revolves around the quantity of precipitation.

  • Geological conditions effect the sedimentation transportation and percolation of water. Lithology of the rocks is important.

  • Topography is responsible for velocity of flow effecting percolation and sedimentation transportation.

  • Vegetation cover -It is responsible for

  • Rate of flow of water to water bodies affects sedimentation process.

  • The quality of water added to water bodies-effluents should be treated to standards before releasing them into water bodies.

  • Biological conditions

  • Pollutants- from air, from effluents, from land

  • Effluents from:

 

  • Chemicals and minerals in nature

  • Populated areas

  • From Industry

  • From Construction sites

  • From water carrier system

  • From Sewage carrier system

  • From waste and water supply system

  • Management practices of storage water

Status of existing water

But now in thickly populated areas the water- withdrawal has lowered the water table and concentrated water is available.   Surface sources cannot fulfill the requirement. They are polluted. People consume bottled water. Rivers are polluted. The condition is worse in thickly populated areas. The quality of water in hills, with less population is good and it can be used for construction and consumption with necessary precautions.

Properties of water need to be noticed /verified before using it as potable water and water for use in reinforced cement concrete construction, construction of roads, all concrete and masonry work for dams, buildings, aggregate processing, curing, offsite concrete production, precast concrete, plasters, finishing etcetera. This applies to various forms of concrete, masonry and plasters works, based on the use admixtures.

Water should be checked for the presence of required contents as the contents may be deleterious for cement and steel construction works. The frequency of water sample testing should be increased, and the test results should be verified with respect to the standards.

As per overall requirement of water, it is available in abundance and if it is used as per its availability as its cycle, there are no severe quality threats in water management. But it is not possible with the increase of population (drinking water needs) and pace of development (Construction Industry needs), To maintain the requirements in off season, water is conserved for use. The conservation of water must be based on quality aspects of management.

 

Effect of development on water

The sources of surface water, which were used for potable water are now getting polluted. The ground water table has gone down especially in populated areas. Water is being extracted from deep bore wells by pumping. The deep water has concentrated salts in it, and from surface use of such water in agriculture, the salts get deposited in fertile soil making it saline and less fertile.

 

In this changed scenario, the use of water on qualitative aspects now becomes important.

In laboratory, the strength of concrete with respect to water used is checked to assess the suitability of water regularly but at certain places particularly cities in plains, and around, the quality of water is should be checked more frequently as pH of water influences the property of water.

 

Some prevalent tips on quality of water
Use of water in pH range from 6 to 8

Use potable water source and distilled water for concrete cube strength test. The strength variation should not be greater than 10 % for the strength with potable water.

Availability of surface water in different areas of the world is used primarily for drinking and construction and the source consists of snowmelt streams, falls and rivers. That is why the most of life exists near such sources. Civilization started along the rivers
Today water is a very important compound for everybody and with the increase of use of water, the importance of water has increased.

 Water Standards

Solids

 

 

Inorganic

Not > 3000 mg / liter

 

Organic

Not > 200 mg / liter

 

Suspended

Not > 2000 mg / liter

 

pH

6.0 to 8.5 normally

(1) Find 28 days strength with source water. (2) find 28 days strength with distilled water. The strength at (1) should not be less than 10 % of the strength obtained from (2)

Oils

 

If greater than 8 %, the strength gets reduced

Alkalis

 

Use 0.2 Normal H2SO4 to test on 100 ml water. If >25 ml H2SO4 is used to neutralize, the water is alkaline

Acids

 

Use 0.2 Normal NaOH to test on 100 ml water. If >5 l NaOH is used to neutralize, the water is acidin

Sugar

 

0.5 % is OK;0.15 % will retard initial setting but 28 days strength is OK

Salts

 

 

ZnCl2

 

Retards concrete strength

PbNO3

 

-do-

Na2CO3

 

-do-

NaHCO3

 

-do-

CaCl2

 

Accelerator

Rivers must have been the guides which conducted the footsteps of the first travelers. They are the constant lure, when they flow by our doors, to distant enterprise and adventure, and, by a natural impulse, the dwellers on their banks will at length accompany their currents to the lowlands of the globe or explore at their invitation the interior of continents.
– Henry David Thoreau

The water-needs order in priority

Drinking

Agriculture

Industrial use

Navigation

Managing Aspects

Now with the increase of population and ongoing development, the requirement of water in most of the countries has increased
The sources of water are same but the availability of water do not remains the same throughout the year.

There is no relation between supply and demand. As such water management has become important so that it is available for use on time.

Water storage practice has come up. There is shift in trends of using water throughout the world. for example

  • Rainwater harvesting is picking up.

  • Recycled water is getting in use.

  • Tanks are developed for storage and use of water at community level.

  • Water management guidelines for domestic use and other uses are being used.

  • Sea water is desalinized for drinking needs along with the use of icebergs for water needs.

  • Water use awareness is being created.

  • Deep well water is mixed up with surface water for irrigation

Why this action has been taken and are being taken

The water for requirement, when not available from surface sources, it is tapped from ground water. The ground water extraction, if done in large quantity and from much deeper area of aquifer, the concentrated water comes up and when it is used particularly for irrigation, the soil becomes saline and loses its fertile power. To reduce the concentration in extracted water, surface water is added in different proportions as needed and then it is used for agriculture. It is being used in Pakistan.

Water is critical for sustainable development, including environmental integrity and the alleviation of poverty and hunger, and is indispensable for human health and well-being”.     

United Nations

 Types of Pollutants

 

There are two types of water pollutants from visibility point of view.
Which we can see (sediments, bed silt, suspended silt) and which we cannot see (dissolved solids, liquids and gases)

 

Every work site creates pollution such as from:

Excavation in soil or rock – sediments

 

Chemicals used in construction such as oils and Greece.

Effluent from workshops, blasting and other construction operations.

 

These pollutants reduce water clarity, disturbs source of food and habitat inside the water affecting the life inside.

They carry N and P nutrients which helps in algal growth.

Reduces aesthetic value of flowing and non-flowing water.

Affects the quality of water for drinking and industry use.

 

Suspended silt makes the water turbid which increases virus and bacteria and reduced oxygen,

Non-visual pollutants (such as acids, lime, gypsum)

These can be dissolved in water or may remain in suspension, may settle on the bed and may go deep into the water level to meet the ground water and pollute the underground reservoir.

As such the after effects of the visual and non-visual pollutants are harmful to human in non-human. The contaminated water becomes unsuitable for drinking and construction purposes.

The water uses for domestic use specially for drinking may have adverse effect on the human life, if the quality of water is not good. The pH scale provides a general idea for quality of water for primary understanding. Also, readily available digital equipment proved instant quality status.

pH (potential of Hydrogen)

It is a measure of alkalinity or acidity of water at a given temperature.

Type of Solution

pH

 

 

Suitable range for surface water is 6.6 to 8’5

 

Suitable range for drinking water is 6.0 to 8.5

Acidic

<7

pH<6.5-water is acidic, sour in taste, water may contain Fe, Mn, Ca, Pb, Zn and is not fit for washing clothes

Hydrogen ion is more active

Neutral

7

pH of pure distilled water

Hydrogen and oxygen ion are equally active.

Basic or Alkaline

>7

pH > 8.5 is hard water

OH, ion is more active

PH diagram below shall help in understanding the Ph values and its importance in water management.

Summary of Water Quality indicators

Indicators

Parameters

Radioactive

Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation emitters

Biological

Bacteria, Algae

Aesthetic

Color, Odor. Organic floating matter

Physical

Temperature, Turbidity, Dissolved solids, color, salinity, suspended solids, dissolved solids

Chemical

·        pH DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Nutrients (including N & P), organic and inorganic compounds, COD

Water is essential for human health in its direct (drinking water) or indirect (other uses of water for human welfare such as agriculture navigation, recreation etcetera) use. It is an

important part of environment and maintains our environment in totality. As a valuable natural resource, its quality should be maintained in whatever form it exists on earth.