Health Management at Construction Projects

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Health Management at Construction Projects

SK Saxena PMP BE MBA FIE (India) - HSSE 1 SK 17

Health Management at Construction Projects

HSSE  1 SK  17    Dec 15, 2018

Health 

Health Is a state of complete physical mental and social well being and not only absence of diseases or infirmity.

 

The human right include housing and living conditions (Places with amenities as per standards), healthy working conditions at workplace, and medical care, suffice to attainable physical and mental health standards.

Everyone has the right to health and it must be provided as public good at the construction projects.

 

It is necessary to provide a good Hospital /Clinic at project site supported by first aid and ambulances and other provisions, staff, doctors, nurses for its complete functioning.

All such services must be to the state standards and accountable to sufferings of human beings for immediate medical requirements at the right time.

 

At the construction projects the workforce consists of people of different culture religion caste and as such there should be no discrimination in provision of quality services, availability of goods and resources, support to community, with transparency and accountability.

Maintaining a good Health Management System at site is the requirement of the project and is responsibility of all stakeholder and the workforce

The assessment of requirements, the planning, the execution, the Monitoring & Control, the Feedback and Modifications must be judiciously done for development of Health Management System as suggested in TechConsult’s  Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

SK 16    https://techconsults.in/health-safety-security-environment-at-construction-projects/

and should be earnestly implemented for a cost-effective project output.

 Health of the workforce is affected at construction projects by the following factors:

 Polluted Air

Waterborne diseases

Improper disposal of sewage

Land degradation

Sexually transmitted diseases

Bad quality of food

Site related accidents

After effects of polluted water:

If consumed for drinking water needs, human and non-humans can suffer from water borne diseases such as Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea, TB, Jaundice, etcetera.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)- If TDS > 500mg/liter may pass into blood there by reaching all parts of body affecting the functionality of the system. Toxic pollutants (heavy metals, pesticide, xenobiotic pollutants (a substance that is not normally expected) are harmful to use.

 Prevention measures to check water pollution are required to reduce impact on health, environment, and to manage water safety standards.

Impact of construction sites on environment:

The construction sites over the ground or under the ground excavation operations creates pollutants in the form of, blasting dust and chemicals, natural chemicals and gases, machines oils and lubricants, effluents gases. The harmful contents obtained from construction operations when exceeds the safety limits are detrimental for human health and for water quality.

Coliforms exists in the bodies of warm-blooded animals and humans. And are passed out as fecal matter in environment. Their availability in water test samples results, indicate that the water was in contact with fecal waste and as such may contain disease causing organisms. 

 Pollutant Control

Real time data collection and monitoring system are in place in this age of advanced computer and data transmission technology. Weather Station data is also available. All such data can be analyzed foe meaningful information which can be used for pollution control of effluents.

Major control parameters are

BODBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in each water sample at certain temperature over a specific time. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per liter of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.

CODIn environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution. It is commonly expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution which in SI units is milligrams per liter (mg/L). A COD test can be used to easily quantify the number of organics in water. The most common application of COD is in quantifying the amount of oxidize able pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater. COD is useful in terms of water quality by providing a metric to determine the effect an effluent will have on the receiving body, much like biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). —-Source Wikipedia

ColiformColiform bacteria are organisms that are present in the environment and in the feces of all warm-blooded animals and humans. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.

pH Value -pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.  The term pH refers to the potential hydrogen/ hydroxyl ion content of a solution.  Solutions ionize into positive and negative ions.  If a solution has more hydrogen (positive) ions than hydroxyl (negative) ions, then it is acidic and has a pH in the range of 0 to 6.9.  Alternatively, if a solution has more hydroxyl (negative) ions than hydrogen (positive) ions then it is alkaline with a pH in the range of 7.1 to 14.  Pure water and deionized water have a balance of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions and is therefore pH neutral (pH 7).

 If the pH of a solution is not within the correct range the plant will not have the ability to absorb some of the essential elements required for proper plant growth.  All plants have a pH range, which will produce healthy growth, and this level will vary from plant to plant, but most plants prefer a slightly acidic growing environment (5.8 to 6.2), although most plants can survive in an environment with pH values between 5.0 and 7.0.

The developed health system should be base don the principals of Equity, Adaptability, Universality, and Transparency with the Participation of all.

Equity being impartial to all genders.  

 

Adaptability – the quality of project administration to adjust to new conditions and flexibility to accept change

 

Universality-The quality of being true or appropriate for all.

 

Transparency – Open in such a way so that others may know what actions are being performed. It helps in trust building in the avoidance of problems and issues.  

 

Participation- All stakeholders to take part and contribute in construction site management, as it finally improves the. procedures involved in the Healthcare.

 

Think over it Good Health and Good Senses are Two of Life’s Greatest blessings-Sy

 

Construction sites have varying environment depending on the scale of operation of the project. Therefore, the health management practices must be design for peak load

Proactive health steps shall create an atmosphere of Wellness and will meet requirements of health definition. 

SOME FORMATS FOR RECORDING ACTIVITIES STATUS:

1 Sample format for Record of Number of Ailments Recorded in Year–———-

Ailment

June

 

May

 

April

March

February

Malaria

 

 

 

 

 

Diarrhea

 

 

 

 

 

Dysentery

 

 

 

 

 

E.N.T 

 

 

 

 

 

AIDS

 

 

 

 

 

STD

 

 

 

 

 

UTI

 

 

 

 

 

Skin disorders

 

 

 

 

 

VD

 

 

 

 

 

Typhoid

 

 

 

 

 

Respiration disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Cardiovascular

 

 

 

 

 

Gastric disease

 

 

 

 

 

Trauma-RTA

 

 

 

 

 

Trauma

 

 

 

 

 

other diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Total Number

 

 

 

 

 

 

  2 Workforce at Site Clinic

Position

Number

Doctor

 

Pathologists

 

Nurse

 

Lab assistants

 

Ward Boys

 

Clerks

 

Ambulance Drivers

 

Scavengers

 

Front office attendants

 

 3 Accommodation facilities at Construction site

CAMP

Description of Accommodation

Number of Rooms

Number residents

Public toilets

Community/ kitchens

REMARK

CAMP A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMP E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTALS

 

 

 

 

 

 Construction works are of varying nature depending on the types of project, and therefore attention should be given on the execution of tasks and their aftereffects on the health of workforce.

It is the responsibility of the entire workforce and the organization and local government bodies to jointly participate in implementation, monitoring and control the likely creation of factors against health hazards.

It should also be seen that the inhabitants outside the work area are given a safe guard against the perceived health complications.

The management must have a proactive approach to avoid any kind of aftereffects on health due to project activities.

Following measures must be taken:

Involvement of all workforce from top to bottom in identifying the health hazards, their prevention and support in aftereffect management.

There must be pro action in finding potential health threats an in enforcement of the control measures.

Conscious awareness creation among the workforce about hazard prevention so that injuries, illness, sufferings and deaths may be avoided.

 If health programs are implemented seriously by the organizations, it will reduce costs due to;

Making workplace incident free

Loss of man hours saved

Less cost of new additional work force recruitment

Saving in training and placement costs

Saving extra efforts of organization.

Saving in material involved

 OSHA suggest easy things to start the programs for health care and they refer to following actions:

Health and safety hazard control measure must be given a top priority by entire work force at the work place.

Healthcare actions taken by team individuals becomes effective learning lessons for others

Create a reporting system about health concerns and share with all the important findings.

Train the workers in identification and control of health hazards

Conduct joint site inspections and issue on site instructions for findings and document them for further monitoring in daily, weekly and monthly meetings. Problems’ and issues log should be maintained for getting help from high level offices.

Collect ideas from workforce for checks on the health hazards as they are nearer to work operations. Further this shall be considered as their involvement and they shall be motivated to help the organization in maintaining a critical eye on health hazard identification and controls.

 Risks are every where on life. You walk on hill roads and any time a stone may fall on you. But walking is not stopped. People becomes used to such risks and they are careful. But in new project activities, location and nature of project, the risks should be assessed by the experts and the workforce must be apprised about the precautionary measures to be taken by them to avoid health and safety after effects.

Health Program orientation should involve following factors:

Management leadership involvement

Workforce participation with dedication

Hazard identification and controls, preferably jointly by the project authority, the constructor and the entire work force.

Hazard prevention and controls.

Education and training all workforce and its implementation by the superiors on daily, weekly and monthly basis.

Monitoring the implementation efforts, exercising controls and providing feedback and information for further necessary improvement actions.

Maintaining a good communication system preferably as real time as possible.

Creating awareness about fitness and wellness in workforce.

Proper coordination at all level for implementation, assessment, controls and further necessary directions.

 

Fitness is very important now in this fast-action-packed scenario to avoid accidents at work during travel and at home. It is not the gym exercises and is different.
It keeps you fit to carry out your functions.
A footballer, hockey player, badminton player or cricketer, plays the game part. These players to play the game without disruptions in actions need to be fit and therefore they get regular fitness training which is additional to their game. The put the purpose is to make you understand that developing of EQ as well as to keep yourself fit for actions effectively and efficiently, is the requirement for the success.

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. John F. Kennedy

Get to know the real

Quality Water to Drink

Community participation

Enjoy the Benifits of a very good health

Images: WOCinTechChat, Bike: 1, 2, 3

Health Safety Security Environment at Construction Projects

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Project Management

Health Safety Security Environment (HSSE)

“Prevent the worst and Put safety first, because being Safe today will keep you Alive tomorrow”

TOPICS:

HSSE General

Importance of HSSE in Project Construction

HSSE Concerns

HSSE Management

HSSE Concerns at Project

Tasks to Manage HSSE

HSSE Organization

HSSE Manager

On-site HSSE Team

Risk Situations

HSSE Management System

Required Actions

Set Targets

HSSE Checks

Get Fit and be Efficient

Hendricks Accident Triangle

Too often we exaggerate the risk of a hazard and categorize what is merely possible as probable because it is easier to enforce than if we make an honest assessment. Some safety professionals, in the name of “zero-injuries” will heap regulation after regulation on a job until the organization rebels and simply refuses to comply. When it comes to making the workplace safer, the more complex and/or burdensome the solution the far less likely the compliance.

 We must understand that there are limits to the amount of protection we can provide to people and if when exceed the perceived reasonable limits we not only fail to protect in that instance, but we lose credibility and jeopardize compliance with safety protocols that are essential for basic safety. When safety professionals’ risk tolerance is out of alignment with societal norms the safety professional is doomed to a life of frustration. – Phil Ladoke

 

General- Health Safety, security and Environment (HSSE) on Construction projects

 A project is unique in itself; no two projects may be the same. But they work within the same knowledge areas and process groups (may be customized as per requirement of the project)

The Health, Safety, Security and Environment management factors are valid for all the projects. Except a few unknown risks, all the risks in HSSE are known risks. As such HSSE management can be planned considering these risks and also customizing it  to the project or operations requirements.

 Most important thing is to assess the requirement of HSSE from the project activities and align the HSSE efforts accordingly.

 Importance of HSSE in project construction and operations.

HSSE revolve around the project Knowledge Areas and Process, and in doing so, they take up numbers of processes to execute the  project for  quality output of the product. This must be there, but ultimate result depends upon how the workplace environment and work force health safety along with security are designed in project execution.

 A secured environment enhances the working efficiency of the work force at the workplace. This is achieved by use of right type of equipment for the right job, avoiding hazard substance or environment, use of authorized persons, adopting equivalent designs and taking the necessary and required precautions for work. Workforce works with confidence and dedication, if secured environment is available in working places.

 Equivalent: Alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Authorized person: A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the jobsite.

 Equipment is the set of necessary tools, clothing, etc. for a particular purpose and to achieve the purpose efficiently without causing harm to operation process

 Hazardous substance: A substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury

Precautions a measure taken in advance to prevent something dangerous and unpleasant or inconvenient from happening – is an important word being used in HSSE. Any action in real world these days is full of risks. We are prepared or must be prepared for known and at the same time must be prepared for unknown risks.

 Construction projects are full of risks- this include the risks inside the project operations and outside the project boundary that are related to project affected  areas.

Mainly these risks are related to human resources in the form of  injury, illness, accidents etcetera.

HSSE subject is important to any business, be it projects or operations, where workforce is employed, and work area environment is to be maintained.

 The engineers involved in construction and operations must be trained for the gap in their knowledge and skills, before putting them on the job.

 The industry must go through the technological changes and so it must manage in its HSSE implementation accordingly, and also remain in touch with educational institution to meet their requirement. These institutions accordingly impart education to engineer students for required inbuilt knowledge and skills, but even after this there remains some gaps when these engineers become workforce of the organization, which should be duly addressed by the organization before imparting necessary training.

 HSSE concerns are important at construction projects

To ensure a safe and healthy work environment and the workplace should provide a feeling to work without tension.

It is mandatory by law and enforcement measures.

It is necessary to avoid cost overrun due to unsafe working in unsafe health environment

One of the major concerns of the industry/organization is to maintain or upgrade the business value by good implementation of HSSE subject in the organization. (If there is well skilled and managed staff for HSSE, it will save the business cost on the time line)

 HSSE management is the concern for the following:

Organization

Sponsors

Project team

Constructors

Employees

Service Providers

Material Suppliers

Labor Unions

State Government

 As such the organizations must have their policies for the following disciplines, but not limited to:

Health Policy

Safety Policy

Security policy

Environment Policy

Quality Policy

Corporate Social Responsibility

 The policies must have accreditation such as, ISO-9001 for Quality, ISO-14001 for Environment Management, OSHA-18001 for Occupational Safety and Health .

 HSSE concerns at Construction Projects are addressed through the implementation of the approved management plans listed below.

Health, Safety, Security, Environment Manuals

Pollution Control

Restoration and land Scape

Erosion and Sediment Control

Waste Management

Traffic Management

Biodiversity Management

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Healthy, Safety Management Plan

Muck Management Plan

Tasks to manage HSSE

Understand the needs of safety and health for the type of construction projects

Know your legal responsibilities

Make a commitment to health and safety in the workplace

Plan how you will implement a safe working environment

Identify, assess and manage hazards

Provide information, training and supervision for employees

Report, record and investigate incidents, injuries and illnesses

Involve employees in the process to improve health and safety

Plan and be ready for emergencies

Include contractors and subcontractors in your hazard management processes

Help employees return to normal work after injury

 Read more on the Psychology of Safety and Risk by Dr Robert Long and George Robotham

 

 HSSE Organization

 HSSE Manager – Projects / Operations

Key Responsibilities:

Ensure that the approved plans are being followed for execution to the satisfaction of all stakeholders.

Ensure that necessary skills are being used in process operations, and methodology is followed, taking into considerations the all required HSSE measures.

Monitor & Control all HSSE matters related with project team members, the contractors, and the workforce follow the set norms and standards for specific requirements.

Ensure that HSSE manuals based on organization’s policy are being followed and workforce actions for the process operations are observed and noted for analysis

Any changes required to be made to the base plan must be discussed with all stakeholders and must be implemented after due approval of change control unit.

 

HSSE manger shall be responsible for the health, safety, environment, & security throughout the project duration to achieve safe project completion with increase in business value for tangible and intangible state

He must be aware of all construction/ operation activities and the processes to find out the requirements for the HSSE and participate in Risk Assessment and hold relevant meeting, workshop internally and with  other stakeholders.

Ensure that the necessary standards and norms of the local bodies and government are implemented efficiently and effectively.

Enforce and audit activities to ensure they meet design / plan requirements and other HSSE guideline.

Monitor and update the HSSE risks register and ensure all mitigation measures are adhere to, throughout the project life cycle / operation period.

 Prepare and manage required documents for related internal / external communication and audit.  

The On-job HSSE team

 The on-job HSSE cadre must follow the HSSE plan, and during the execution process, it should observe, the workforce’s actions on HSSE measures. And align them to the planned efforts, to be taken during construction operations.

 The team should note the processes to be performed, precautions to be met, and observe the actions of workforce in doing the job skill wise.

 The data collected should be analyzed for different categories of works and risks associated with their jobs or undesirable actions, some of which are mentioned below:

 Onsite facilities misuse

Falls into ditches

Electricity misuse

Barricade misuse

Improper use of equipment

Fire accidents

Vehicle accidents

No use of PPEs

Violation of work standards and norms

Non-participation on in awareness trainings

 (All such actions / violations notices must be brought to the notice of supervisors and to senior staff for follow up action which may include:

 High level meetings

Field level meetings

Training for awareness

On job training

PPE use awareness training

Training on security measures

Appointment of certified skilled staff)

 Acceptance of HSSE subject norms, like other norms is not effortless. It depends on the attitude of the worker-his behavior.

(Those who do not know can be trained. Those who do not want to know is an attitudinal problem. And needs special attention.)

 

Risk situations may be created by:

 

Electricity supply
Airborne particulate matter
Excavation operations
Underground blasting operations

Material handling and fabrication
Noise of construction operations
Vehicle movement

Slips

Works at height

Suicide

Etcetera

HSSE Management System
( The Principle- Zero accident in Project Life Cycle)

 HSSE Management System Documents encompasses:

A -Organizational Commitments for HSSE

(HSSE Policy and Goals, Responsibility and Accountability Matrix, Performance Reviews, Actions on unlawful involvement of work force, Issue Resolution, Change management, Staff management and High-level inspections)

 B -Planning, Identification of HSSE tasks from the Process groups, Monitoring & control, Evaluation and feedback system design.

 Depending on the perceived HSSE Challenges and project  HSSE requirements, project planning should include actions required during the project execution process. These may include perceived site specific Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Control Measure, Facilities Inspection designs, HSSE task lists, Instructions, Record Logs, Manuals, Training Requirements, Checklists, Emergency Response Planning, Incident Reporting and Investigation instructions and Reporting formats, Controls, Feedback and Communication implementation strategies. Preparation of  HSSE execution plan and its approval from team and the stakeholders.

 C -Execution of HSSE tasks

The execution processes must use required Inputs, Tools & Techniques for the desired Outputs as suggested in HSSE plans.

It is to be ensured that the execution is inline with the approved planning. Any changes required during execution process, or incorporation of additional requirements should be duly approved, and implemented after revised plan approval for further execution.

It should also be ensured that the quality of implementation operations is as per set standards and necessary report is generated.

D – Monitoring and Control.

It should be ensured that the implementation unit is following the planned instruction and no unauthoried deviation means are adopted. The field units  should follow the set rules and in case of any variations found by the monitoring unit the , these should be complied and reported. Any unusual implementation process exection should be brought in the knowledge of high level team for information and advice.

Also ensure that:

The compliance is done. ( Non Conformance Notices should be issued for any unacceptable output).

Involving Stakeholders in decision making

Training of all persons for plans of Health, Safety, Security a

All stakeholders must be aware of HSSE plans and its implementation

Roles and responsibilities of the persons under project manager must be clearly complied.

Involve everybody from initiation to planning to execution to end through a well-managed communication system

Important Required actions During Implementation Stage

Set procedures for processes
Set work instructions at the workplace
Create awareness about known risk
Supervisors must foresee the risks during construction operations and apprise workers about it

Conduct safety meetings
Ensure that work supervising force uses the required treatment for physical and mental ailments

Provide short rest breaks and avoid overtime.

Maintain HSSE files

 Set targets for :

Review and discuss the status in reality

Be open to receive other’s opinions
Active participation, learning from past and related projects Learning from incidents
Tool Box Training
Training of all stakeholders
Development of monitoring system
Employ trained and certified persons
Analyze the job and search for support providers

 A project involves both the shop floor activities and construction activities. So, whole area of the project must be given important attention by dedicated team of managers and supervisors so that accidents are bare minimum or Zero. It shall boost the morale of the work force and increase the efficiency.

Contrary to this, organization may face labor problems, legal problems etcetera which will affect the project timelines and other project constraints.

As such

Focus on the topic
Create awareness
Connect to work force
Evolve methods
Manage projects
Inbuilt HSSE in all knowledge areas and processes of project management

Special considerations be given to fire, electricity, lights, vehicles operations along with process hazard analysis and suggested precautionary measures required for awareness creation training and execution.

 Anything happening against these parameters in project management, spread in a big way and affects project operations and business. Without the required amenities it is always difficult to move within the limitations of the project constraints. It may affect schedule, cost, quality, resources and reputation.

 HSSE checks for system implementation

 Ensure that /mechanism/ arrangement exists and check for:

The workplace is safe to work for the required number of persons

HSSE head is in place

Awareness creation mechanism exists

Top management is committed

Awareness creation about existing enforcement measures Awareness about age of persons for construction jobs

Ensure safety of other service providers at the project

Ensure safety of community outside the boundary of the project Necessary insurance measure for all project participants Apprising the project team about HSSE plans

 

Apprising stakeholders about risks and plans

Policy document existence

Creation of milestones in planning

Hazard identification processes

Known hazards

Engagement of third party for training and consultancy

Availability of responsibility matrix

 

Ensure that the supervisory staff is duly certified

Crisis manager is available

Risk management plan and risk response plan exists

Existing of Injury / incident reporting and management system.

Arrangement of onsite training for staff

Site safety management for workers

Emergency procedures

Non -conformance notices implementation system

Injury / accident management system

Induction training

HSSE concerns documentation in contract

Awareness about legal requirement of HSSE training

Information and communication system about hazard management

Monitoring and feedback system

Functioning of digital real time equipment

 

And many others as per need of the project tasks

 Get Fit and be Efficient

Fitness is very important now in this fast-action-packed scenario to avoid accidents at work during travel and at home. It is not the gym exercises and is different.
It keeps you fit to carry out your functions.

A footballer, hockey player, badminton player or cricketer, plays the game part. These players to play the game without disruptions in actions need to be fit and therefore they get regular fitness training which is additional to their game.

The put the purpose is to make you understand that developing of EQ as well as to keep yourself fit for actions effectively and efficiently, is the requirement for the success. How important the follow up of HSSE guidance is, is clear from the information given by Heinrich Accident Triangle be

The Health, Safety, Security and Environment affect the workforce efficiency and their morale.  If duly taken care of, there is boost in production and recreation.
Contrary to this, business Value may reduce..

Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. John F. Kennedy

 

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